Table 2.

RR of breast cancer according to quintiles of dietary lycopene intake among 38,447 women

Quintile of lycopene intake*
≥95th PercentileP, linear trend
1st (n = 7,690)2nd (n = 7,689)3rd (n = 7,690)4th (n = 7,689)5th (n = 7,689)
Median lycopene intake (μg/d)*3,3265,4277,68310,81316,741≥20,519
Total breast cancer(208)(213)(215)(237)(203)(51)
    Age-, treatment-adjusted RR1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.86-1.26)1.04 (0.86-1.26)1.15 (0.96-1.39)1.00 (0.82-1.21)0.99 (0.73-1.33)0.89
    Multivariate-adjusted RR§1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.76-1.17)0.98 (0.79-1.21)1.07 (0.87-1.32)0.96 (0.77-1.19)1.03 (0.74-1.42)0.98
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.77-1.18)1.00 (0.80-1.24)1.10 (0.89-1.36)1.00 (0.80-1.25)1.09 (0.78-1.51)0.71
Positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors(133)(139)(136)(167)(144)(38)
    Age-, treatment-adjusted RR1.00 (reference)1.07 (0.84-1.36)1.03 (0.81-1.31)1.27 (1.01-1.59)1.11 (0.88-1.41)1.18 (0.83-1.68)0.23
    Multivariate-adjusted RR§1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.75-1.27)0.94 (0.72-1.23)1.17 (0.91-1.51)1.06 (0.81-1.37)1.19 (0.81-1.74)0.35
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.75-1.28)0.96 (0.73-1.25)1.21 (0.94-1.57)1.12 (0.85-1.47)1.28 (0.86-1.90)0.16
  • * Energy-adjusted using the residual method (25).

  • Number of events in brackets.

  • Adjusted for age, randomized aspirin, randomized vitamin E, and randomized β-carotene.

  • § Adjusted for the covariates above plus body mass index, family history of breast cancer, physical activity, age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first pregnancy, number of pregnancies, postmenopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use.

  • Adjusted for the covariates above plus alcohol intake, fiber intake, folate intake, saturated fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake.