Table 3.

Association of smoking habits with CIN2 and ≥CIN3 among HPV16 DNA–positive women


<CIN2
CIN2*

≥CIN3*

n (%)n (%)n (%)OR (95% CI)n (%)OR (95% CI)
Never365 (44)221 (52)42 (39)1.0 (reference)102 (35)1.0 (reference)
Former90 (11)46 (11)15 (14)1.7 (0.9 –3.2)29 (10)1.4 (0.8 -2.3)
Current373 (45)161 (38)52 (48)1.7 (1.1 –2.8)160 (55)2.0 (1.4 -2.8)
PTrend<0.0005
Never365 (44)221 (52)421.0 (reference)102 (35)1.0 (reference)
Former90 (11)46 (11)151.7 (0.9 –3.2)29 (10)1.4 (0.8 -2.3)
Current, <1 pack/d227 (27)101 (24)311.6 (1.0-2.8)95 (33)1.9 (1.3 -2.8)
Current, 1 to <2 packs/d136 (16)57 (13)201.9 (1.0 –3.5)59 (20)2.0 (1.3 -3.2)
Current, ≥2 packs/d10 (1)3 (1)12.0 (0.2 –20.0)6 (2)3.7 (0.9 -15.0)
PTrend<0.0005
Never365 (44)221 (52)42 (39)1.0 (reference)102 (35)1.0 (reference)
Former90 (11)46 (11)15 (14)1.7 (0.9 -3.2)29 (10)1.4 (0.8 -2.3)
Current, <6 y164 (20)78 (18)26 (24)1.8 (1.0 -3.1)60 (21)1.5 (1.0 -2.3)
Current, 6-10 y117 (14)47 (11)15 (14)1.8 (0.9 -3.5)55 (19)2.4 (1.5 -3.8)
Current, ≥11 y92 (11)36 (8)11 (10)1.6 (0.8 -3.5)45 (15)2.5 (1.5 -4.1)
PTrend<0.0005
  • NOTE: ORs with 95% CI from multinomial logistic regression models comparing women with a CIN2 or ≥CIN3 diagnosis to women with a <CIN2 diagnosis. Values in bold indicate ORs for which the lower or upper confidence bound does not include 1.00. Includes all women who were HPV16-positive upon enrollment (i.e., women with all diagnoses: <CIN2, CIN2, ≥CIN3) during the 2-year study period.

  • * Includes all cases diagnosed at enrollment, during the 2-year follow-up, and at the exit colposcopy.

  • Adjusted for education.