Table 1.

Association of smoking behavior with detection of oncogenic HPV DNA upon enrollment among control women (n = 1,344 HPV-negative women and n = 2,366 oncogenic HPV-positive women)

Smoking exposureOR* (95% CI)
Never1.0 (reference)
Former0.6 (0.5-0.8)
Current1.2 (1.0-1.4)
Ptrend0.2
Never1.0 (reference)
Former0.6 (0.5-0.8)
Current, <1 pack/d1.1 (0.9-1.3)
Current, 1 to <2 packs/d1.4 (1.0-1.8)
Current, ≥2 packs/d1.6 (0.7-4.0)
Ptrend0.06
Never1.0 (reference)
Former0.6 (0.5-0.8)
Current, <6 y1.0 (0.8-1.4)
Current, 6-10 y1.1 (0.8-1.4)
Current, ≥11 y1.3 (1.0-1.7)
Ptrend0.04
Never1.0 (reference)
Former0.6 (0.5-0.8)
Current, <1 pack/d
Current, <6 y0.9 (0.7-1.3)
Current, 6-10 y1.2 (0.9-1.7)
Current, ≥11 y1.1 (0.8-1.6)
Current, 1 to <2 packs/d
Current <6 y1.9 (0.9-3.9)
Current, 6-10 y0.8 (0.5-1.4)
Current, ≥11 y1.5 (1.1-2.2)
Current, ≥2 packs/d
Current, <6 yNA
Current, 6-10 y1.3 (0.0-11.0)
Current, ≥11 y1.7 (0.6-4.4)
  • NOTE: ORs with 95% CI from a multivariate logistic regression model comparing oncogenic HPV-positive versus HPV-negative women. Values in bold indicate ORs for which the lower or upper confidence bound does not include 1.00. Restricted to women with a diagnosis of <CIN2 during the 2-year study period.

    Abbreviation: NA, not applicable.

  • * Adjusted for age, study center, and recent and lifetime numbers of sexual partners (0 and 0-2, 0 and ≥3, 1 and 0-2, 1 and ≥3, ≥2 and 0-2, ≥2 and ≥3).