Table 2.

ORs (95% CIs) for the association of quartiles of total vitamin A and carotenoid intake with ovarian cancer, Hawaii and Los Angeles, 1993-1999

Q2 vs Q1Q3 vs Q1Q4 vs Q1P for trend*
All women (n = 558 cases and 607 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.78 (0.55-1.10)0.66 (0.46-0.95)0.61 (0.42-0.89)0.02
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only1.04 (0.73-1.47)0.75 (0.52-1.08)0.72 (0.49-1.07)0.05
    All carotenoids (μg)1.09 (0.77-1.54)0.66 (0.46-0.96)0.78 (0.52-1.17)0.11
    α-Carotene (μg)1.19 (0.85-1.68)0.73 (0.52-1.04)0.81 (0.56-1.17)0.08
    β-Carotene (μg)0.98 (0.70-1.39)0.70 (0.49-1.00)0.66 (0.45-0.97)0.02
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.26 (0.89-1.78)0.78 (0.55-1.12)0.82 (0.56-1.21)0.11
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)1.20 (0.85-1.68)1.18 (0.84-1.67)1.33 (0.93-1.91)0.14
    Lycopene (μg)0.93 (0.65-1.31)0.96 (0.66-1.39)0.97 (0.65-1.44)0.91
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.27 (0.89-1.80)1.06 (0.73-1.53)0.84 (0.57-1.26)0.31
Premenopausal women (n = 217 cases and 256 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.70 (0.39-1.25)0.52 (0.29-0.93)0.49 (0.26-0.92)0.04
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only1.28 (0.72-2.27)0.73 (0.49-1.33)0.71 (0.38-1.35)0.150.15
    All carotenoids (μg)0.96 (0.54-1.70)0.56 (0.30-1.92)0.65 (0.33-1.27)0.15
    α-Carotene (μg)1.58 (0.89-2.80)0.60 (0.33-1.10)0.70 (0.38-1.29)0.06
    β-Carotene (μg)1.27 (0.73-2.21)0.73 (0.41-1.31)0.61 (0.33-1.14)0.04
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.54 (0.88-2.72)0.70 (0.39-1.26)0.70 (0.37-1.31)0.10
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)0.81 (0.48-1.38)0.58 (0.33-1.00)0.79 (0.43-1.44)0.20
    Lycopene (μg)1.01 (0.55-1.85)0.95 (0.50-1.81)1.04 (0.52-2.07)0.84
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)0.98 (0.55-1.75)1.04 (0.56-1.94)0.60 (0.31-1.16)0.15
Postmenopausal women (n = 341 cases and 351 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.77 (0.49-1.21)0.70 (0.43-1.12)0.60 (0.36-0.99)0.06
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only0.84 (0.53-1.32)0.70 (0.43-1.24)0.62 (0.36-1.05)0.060.06
    All carotenoids (μg)1.13 (0.72-1.78)0.66 (0.41-1.07)0.76 (0.45-1.28)0.16
    α-Carotene (μg)0.96 (0.62-1.50)0.78 (0.50-1.22)0.81 (0.50-1.31)0.29
    β-Carotene (μg)0.78 (0.49-1.23)0.62 (0.38-0.99)0.59 (0.36-0.97)0.05
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.01 (0.64-1.59)0.79 (0.40-1.26)0.75 (0.45-1.25)0.17
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)1.64 (1.03-2.60)1.98 (1.24-3.17)1.90 (1.17-3.07)0.007
    Lycopene (μg)0.91 (0.59-1.42)1.46 (0.66-1.69)0.90 (0.54-1.50)0.80
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.43 (0.90-2.25)0.97 (0.60-1.56)0.89 (0.52-1.50)0.45
Mucinous tumors (n = 109 cases and 607 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.55 (0.31-0.99)0.34 (0.18-0.65)0.49 (0.26-0.93)0.06
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only0.73 (0.40-1.32)0.50 (0.26-0.95)0.53 (0.27-1.06)0.04
    All carotenoids (μg)0.84 (0.46-1.52)0.57 (0.30-1.07)0.52 (0.25-1.07)0.07
    α-Carotene (μg)1.02 (0.57-1.82)0.58 (0.31-1.09)0.70 (0.37-1.34)0.13
    β-Carotene (μg)0.68 (0.38-1.22)0.52 (0.28-0.97)0.43 (0.22-0.86)0.02
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only0.80 (0.44-1.44)0.64 (0.35-1.18)0.48 (0.24-0.95)0.01
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)1.05 (0.59-1.88)0.91 (0.50-1.66)0.82 (0.43-1.57)0.50
    Lycopene (μg)1.39 (0.76-2.55)0.89 (0.44-1.78)1.15 (0.55-2.38)0.99
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.05 (0.58-1.90)0.85 (0.45-1.62)0.53 (0.26-1.10)0.08
Nonmucinous tumors (n = 449 cases and 607 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.87 (0.60-1.25)0.78 (0.53-1.13)0.65 (0.44-0.98)0.04
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only1.15 (0.79-1.66)0.84 (0.57-1.24)0.79 (0.52-1.20)0.13
    All carotenoids (μg)1.17 (0.81-1.69)0.70 (0.47-1.03)0.86 (0.56-1.31)0.25
    α-Carotene (μg)1.25 (0.87-1.80)0.79 (0.54-1.14)0.85 (0.58-1.25)0.16
    β-Carotene (μg)1.09 (0.76-1.57)0.76 (0.52-1.12)0.74 (0.49-1.10)0.05
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.43 (0.99-2.06)0.83 (0.56-1.21)0.94 (0.62-1.42)0.29
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)1.24 (0.86-1.78)1.27 (0.88-1.83)1.49 (1.02-2.19)0.05
    Lycopene (μg)0.83 (0.57-1.20)0.98 (0.67-1.45)0.94 (0.62-1.43)0.93
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.33 (0.92-1.93)1.13 (0.76-1.67)0.94 (0.61-1.43)0.63
Smokers (n = 207 cases and 240 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.69 (0.38-1.24)0.59 (0.33-1.05)0.36 (0.19-0.66)0.001
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only0.95 (0.53-1.70)0.82 (0.45-1.47)0.51 (0.57-0.95)0.03
    All carotenoids (μg)1.07 (0.59-1.92)0.64 (0.36-1.15)0.42 (0.22-0.78)0.002
    α-Carotene (μg)1.36 (0.78-2.36)0.78 (0.44-1.38)0.74 (0.42-1.31)0.17
    β-Carotene (μg)0.98 (0.56-1.73)0.78 (0.43-1.41)0.37 (0.20-0.68)0.0003
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.18 (0.67-2.10)0.75 (0.42-1.34)0.55 (0.30-1.01)0.03
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)0.85 (0.50-1.43)1.00 (0.56-1.77)0.79 (0.44-1.43)0.55
    Lycopene (μg)1.18 (0.64-2.16)1.03 (0.56-1.90)0.84 (0.43-1.63)0.49
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.56 (0.85-2.84)0.81 (0.43-1.54)0.71 (0.37-1.03)0.10
Nonsmokers (n = 351 cases and 367 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.82 (0.53-1.28)0.69 (0.43-1.09)0.80 (0.48-1.31)0.48
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only1.11 (0.71-1.73)0.71 (0.44-1.15)0.87 (0.52-1.48)0.33
    All carotenoids (μg)1.15 (0.74-1.79)0.69 (0.43-1.12)1.19 (0.70-2.04)0.63
    α-Carotene (μg)1.09 (0.70-1.71)0.68 (0.43-1.07)0.81 (0.51-1.28)0.27
    β-Carotene (μg)1.04 (0.67-1.60)0.68 (0.43-1.08)0.94 (0.57-1.55)0.76
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.35 (0.87-2.10)0.82 (0.51-1.30)1.03 (0.61-1.73)0.63
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)1.53 (0.97-2.40)1.35 (0.86-2.11)1.83 (1.13-2.95)0.02
    Lycopene (μg)0.83 (0.54-1.27)0.95 (0.59-1.52)1.09 (0.65-1.82)0.71
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.14 (0.73-1.76)1.28 (0.81-2.02)0.93 (0.55-1.57)0.97
Drinkers (n = 203 cases and 238 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.90 (0.49-1.63)0.83 (0.45-1.55)0.86 (0.45-1.65)0.70
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only1.13 (0.63-2.03)0.90 (0.49-1.65)1.04 (0.54-2.00)0.94
    All carotenoids (μg)1.52 (0.83-2.77)0.61 (0.32-1.14)1.05 (0.55-1.99)0.79
    α-Carotene (μg)1.38 (0.78-2.44)0.74 (0.42-1.32)0.94 (0.51-1.64)0.42
    β-Carotene (μg)1.10 (0.62-1.95)0.79 (0.43-1.46)0.89 (0.48-1.63)0.58
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.47 (0.83-2.63)0.94 (0.51-1.72)1.09 (0.58-2.06)0.88
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)1.38 (0.81-2.35)1.63 (0.92-2.88)0.88 (0.47-1.63)0.91
    Lycopene (μg)1.15 (0.62-2.12)1.15 (0.62-2.14)0.91 (0.48-1.74)0.72
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.54 (0.83-2.85)1.04 (0.55-1.95)1.55 (0.79-3.06)0.39
Nondrinkers (n = 354 cases and 369 controls)
    Vitamin A (IU)0.68 (0.44-1.05)0.59 (0.38-0.92)0.47 (0.29-0.76)0.004
    Vitamin A (IU)-food sources only0.93 (0.60-1.44)0.63 (0.39-1.00)0.53 (0.31-0.88)0.006
    All carotenoids (μg)0.91 (0.59-1.40)0.67 (0.42-1.06)0.61 (0.36-1.05)0.05
    α-Carotene (μg)1.06 (0.69-1.63)0.67 (0.42-1.06)0.70 (0.43-1.14)0.06
    β-Carotene (μg)0.90 (0.58-1.40)0.62 (0.39-0.97)0.51 (0.31-0.84)0.004
    β-Carotene (μg)-food sources only1.12 (0.72-1.74)0.66 (0.42-1.05)0.64 (0.38-1.05)0.03
    β-Cryptoxanthin (μg)1.06 (0.68-1.67)0.98 (0.63-1.53)1.51 (0.95-2.39)0.11
    Lycopene (μg)0.85 (0.55-1.32)0.86 (0.54-1.38)1.02 (0.60-1.73)0.98
    Lutein/zeaxanthin (μg)1.15 (0.75-1.78)1.10 (0.69-1.75)0.58 (0.34-0.97)0.06
  • NOTE: ORs after adjustment for age, ethnicity, study site, education, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy status, tubal ligation, and energy intake by polytomous logistic regression (histologic type) or unconditional logistic regression (all other variables). Quartile cut points for vitamin A and carotenoids were as follows: vitamin A (total), 9,230, 14,366, and 23,148 IU; vitamin A (food sources), 7,433, 11,444, and 18,703 IU; total carotenoids, 7,887, 12,470, and 19,597 μg; α-carotene, 470, 898, and 1,703 μg; β-carotene (total), 3,016, 5,070, and 8,252 μg; β-carotene (food sources), 2,880, 4,722, and 7,575 μg; β-cryptoxanthin, 55.2, 137.6, and 322.5 μg; lycopene, 1,542, 2,636, and 4,659 μg; lutein/zeaxanthin, 1,711, 2,707, and 4,182 μg.

  • * Based on the likelihood ratio test comparing models with and without a trend variable that was assigned the median for the categories.

  • Includes both food and supplement sources.