Table 3.

Association between tumor characteristics and high mammogram density compared with low stratified by interval and screen-detected cancers

Screen detected (BIRAD 3-5 with cancer in 24 mo)
Interval cancer (BIRAD 1 and 2 with cancer in 24 mo)
Fatty (n = 300), %Dense (n = 95), %OR* (95% CI)Fatty (n = 73), %Dense (n = 78), %OR* (95% CI)
Tumor size (cm)
    0.1-1.044.532.21 (reference)19.123.01 (reference)
    1.1-2.042.448.92.2 (1.1-4.1)45.645.91.1 (0.4-3.3)
    2.1-1013.118.92.4 (1.0-5.9)35.331.10.8 (0.3-2.6)
    Missing10554
    P for trend0.020.69
Lymph node status
    Negative80.371.31 (reference)68.963.51 (reference)
    Positive19.728.81.7 (0.9-3.5)31.136.51.6 (0.6-4.0)
    Missing5115124
Lymphatic or vascular invasion
    No90.878.51 (reference)87.182.71 (reference)
    Yes9.221.52.2 (0.9-5.4)12.917.31.6 (0.4-5.8)
    Missing5116113
Histologic grade
    Low41.448.81 (reference)23.840.01 (reference)
    Intermediate42.232.50.8 (0.4-1.5)41.333.30.6 (0.2-1.8)
    High16.518.80.8 (0.3-2.0)34.926.70.3 (0.1-1.0)
    Missing5115103
    P for trend0.430.05
Nuclear grade
    Low24.826.31 (reference)14.320.01 (reference)
    Intermediate51.652.51.0 (0.5-2.1)49.248.00.3 (0.1-1.3)
    High23.621.30.6 (0.2-1.4)36.532.00.3 (0.1-1.2)
    Missing5015103
    P for trend0.240.14
Differentiation
    Low17.318.81 (reference)6.314.71 (reference)
    Intermediate27.327.50.9 (0.4-2.4)22.229.30.2 (0.0-1.3)
    High55.453.81.0 (0.4-2.4)71.456.00.1 (0.0-0.8)
    Missing5115103
    P for trend0.960.04
Mitoses
    Low71.568.81 (reference)49.253.31 (reference)
    Intermediate18.520.00.8 (0.4-1.9)20.625.30.8 (0.3-2.5)
    High10.011.30.8 (0.3-2.3)30.221.30.3 (0.1-0.9)
    Missing5115103
    P for trend0.590.04
Ki-67 (%)
    <2535.740.51 (reference)14.117.31 (reference)
    25-10064.359.50.7 (0.4-1.4)85.982.70.7 (0.2-2.4)
    Missing5916
Tumor necrosis
    None63.166.31 (reference)65.658.71 (reference)
    Low29.328.80.7 (0.3-1.4)20.329.32.3 (0.8-6.6)
    Intermediate/high7.65.00.3 (0.1-1.4)14.112.01.1 (0.3-3.8)
    Missing511593
    P for trend0.100.49
Estrogen receptor
    Positive86.188.81 (reference)76.673.31 (reference)
    Negative13.911.30.6 (0.2-1.6)23.426.71.0 (0.4-2.8)
    Missing551593
Progesterone receptor
    Positive76.273.81 (reference)76.668.01 (reference)
    Negative23.826.31.2 (0.6-2.5)23.432.02.0 (0.7-5.2)
    Missing561593
p53
    ≤10% Positive88.895.0(reference)82.382.71 (reference)
    >10% Positive11.35.00.3 (0.1-0.9)17.717.30.7 (0.2-2.1)
    Missing601593
p27
    High52.553.81 (reference)37.545.31 (reference)
    Medium/low47.546.30.7 (0.4-1.3)62.554.70.7 (0.3-1.7)
    Missing561593
Cyclin E
    Low/medium93.997.51 (reference)90.690.51 (reference)
    High6.12.50.1 (0.0-1.2)9.49.50.8 (0.2-3.4)
    Missing561594
Bcl-2
    Medium/high48.846.31 (reference)53.164.01 (reference)
    Negative/low51.253.80.9 (0.5-1.7)46.936.00.8 (0.3-1.9)
    Missing561593
C-erb-B2
    Negative/low84.081.31 (reference)80.682.71 (reference)
    Medium/high16.018.81.2 (0.5-2.8)19.417.31.1 (0.3-3.3)
    Missing5615113
  • * For dense breasts compared with fatty breasts. ORs adjusted for BMI, age at diagnosis, menopausal status/age at menopause, age at first birth, and AJCC stage.

  • Tumor size and lymph node status were not adjusted for stage.

  • P < 0.05.