First authorJournal abbreviation yearCountrySourcePCR primers usedNo. casesAny61116183133354556
    Yeudall WAJ Gen Virol 1991United KingdomFFTS-PCR only397.72.62.6
    Ostwald CJ Oral Pathol Med 1994GermanyFF and PE*MY09/11 GP5+/6+2661.526.923.1
    Cruz IBEur J Cancer B Oral Oncol 1996NetherlandsFF*GP5+/6+ Cpl/CPIIG3554.
    Snijders PJInt J Cancer 1996NetherlandsFF and PE*GP5/62520.
    Fouret PArch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997FrancePEWD72/76+WD66/67/1541225.
    Alvarez AIAm J Otolaryngol 1997SpainUnsure*TS-PCR only250.
    Andl TCancer Res 1998GermanyFF*WD72/76+WD66/67/154560.
    Adams VAnticancer Res 1999SwitzerlandFF*MY09/111546.
    Badaracco GAnticancer Res 2000ItalyFF*MY09/113826.310.55.310.513.
    van Houten VMInt J Cancer 2001NetherlandsFFGP5+/6+454.
    Mork JNEJM 2001Norway, Finland, SwedenPE*GP5+/6+ CpI/CpIIG5916.91.71.716.00.01.7
    Klussman JPCancer 2001GermanyUnsure*A10/A5-A6/A82218.
    Koskinen WJInt J Cancer 2003FinlandFFSPF10 FAP59/64 CP65/70 CP66/692864.
    Herrero RJ Natl Cancer Inst 2003Italy, Spain, North Ireland, PolandFF*GP5+/6+3384.
    Kansky AAActa Virol 2003SloveniaPE*PGMY09/11 GP5+/6+ WD72/76+WD66/67/154555.
North America
    Maden CAm J Epidemiol 1992United StatesExfTS-PCR only108NA19.06.0
    Holladay EBAm J Clin Pathol 1993United StatesPEMY09/113917.
    Noble-Topham SEArch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993CanadaPE*TS-PCR only2548.08.040.0
    Paz IBCancer 1997United StatesFFMY09/11 IU/IUDO6412.
    Schwartz SMJ Natl Cancer Inst 1998United StatesPE*MY09/1119321.26.23.611.41.0
    Ringstrom EClin Cancer Res 2002United StatesFF*MY09/11414.94.90.0
    Smith EMInt J Cancer 2004United StatesPEMY09/111069.
    Gillison MLJ Natl Cancer Inst 2000United StatesFF*PGMY09/118112.
    Herrero RJ Natl Cancer Inst 2003CanadaFF*GP5+/6+2810.
    Balaram PInt J Cancer 1995IndiaFF and PE*MY09/11 GP5/6 TS-PCR9173.615.419.841.847.
    Shindoh MCancer 1995JapanPETS-PCR only7731.
    Wen SAnticancer Res 1997ChinaPE*TS-PCR only4531.120.024.4
    D'Costa JOral Oncol 1998IndiaFFMY09/1110017.
    Mineta HAnticancer Res 1998JapanFFTS-PCR only1421.421.40.0
    Tsuhako KJ Oral Pathol Med 2000JapanPE*TS-PCR only8357.815.71.233.736.1
    Cao JChin J Dent Res 2000ChinaPETS-PCR only4072.552.527.5
    Shin KHInt J Oncol 2002KoreaUnsureTS-PCR only7614.55.310.52.6
    Nagpal JKInt J Cancer 2002IndiaFF and PEMY09/1111033.622.714.5
    Sugiyama MOral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Radiol Endod 2003JapanPE*TS-PCR only8634.934.92.3
    Higa MOral Oncol 2003JapanFFTS-PCR only4680.421.
    Chang JYAm J Clin Pathol 2003TaiwanPE*MY09/GP6+10349.
    Herrero RJ Natl Cancer Inst 2003IndiaFF*GP5+/6+2623.
Other (includes Central and South America, Australia, and Africa)
    Premoli-De-Percoco GJ Oral Pathol Med 2001VenezuelaPETS-PCR only5060.
    Herrero RJ Natl Cancer Inst 2003Cuba, Australia, SudanFF*GP5+/6+
  • Abbreviations: FF, fresh frozen; PE, paraffin embedded; TS, type specific; Exf, exfoliated oral cells.

  • * Study assessed a human gene marker for the quality of the cancer specimen and reported results for this laboratory assessment.

  • Author provided additional data from their study for this review.

  • Study not included in analysis of biopsy specimens.