Table 6.

Migration history, acculturation, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women, by menopausal status—multivariate-adjusted analyses

Premenopausal women, OR (95% CI)*Postmenopausal women, OR (95% CI)*
Type of residence before migration
    U.S.-born1.01.0
    Foreign-born1.11 (0.74-1.64)0.61 (0.47-0.80)
        Urban1.19 (0.77-1.83)0.57 (0.42-0.78)
        Mixed urban and rural1.07 (0.62-1.85)0.63 (0.43-0.91)
        Rural1.03 (0.60-1.76)0.73 (0.50-1.08)
Years of residence in the United States,,§
    U.S.-born1.01.0
    ≥401.42 (0.42-4.75)0.70 (0.49-1.01)
    30-391.70 (0.82-3.52)0.64 (0.43-0.93)
    20-291.25 (0.72-2.15)0.43 (0.27-0.70)
    10-190.92 (0.56-1.54)0.41 (0.25-0.68)
    <100.66 (0.34-1.28)0.43 (0.23-0.77
Ptrend = 0.43Ptrend < 0.01
Age at migration to the United States,
    U.S.-born1.01.0
    <101.70 (0.71-4.02)0.75 (0.38-1.48)
    10-191.26 (0.72-2.21)0.78 (0.50-1.22)
    20-291.07 (0.63-1.79)0.53 (0.36-0.77)
    30-390.79 (0.45-1.40)0.51 (0.33-0.80)
    ≥400.78 (0.30-2.06)0.51 (0.33-0.78)
Ptrend = 0.47Ptrend < 0.01
Generation
    Third1.01.0
    Second0.83 (0.51-1.36)0.91 (0.64-1.30)
    First1.01 (0.64-1.59)0.59 (0.42-0.83)
Ptrend = 0.97Ptrend < 0.01
Birthplace of subject, birthplace of grandparents, type of residence before migration, years of U.S. residence
    Foreign, 4 foreign, rural, <20 y0.71 (0.30-1.66)0.26 (0.12-0.58)
    Foreign, 4 foreign, mixed, <20 y0.83 (0.38-1.83)0.30 (0.14-0.62)
    Foreign, 4 foreign, urban, <20 y0.83 (0.40-1.73)0.27 (0.13-0.54)
    Foreign, 4 foreign, rural, ≥20 y1.13 (0.50-2.55)0.51 (0.29-0.88)
    Foreign, 4 foreign, mixed, ≥20 y0.91 (0.32-2.57)0.35 (0.20-0.64)
    Foreign, 4 foreign, urban, ≥20 y1.43 (0.68-3.02)0.37 (0.22-0.61)
    Foreign, <4 foreign1.29 (0.48-3.45)0.53 (0.29-0.95)
    United States, 4 foreign0.71 (0.36-1.38)0.66 (0.42-1.04)
    United States, 1-2 United States1.39 (0.67-2.89)0.83 (0.48-1.44)
    United States, 3-4 United States1.01.0
Language spoken now
    English only1.01.0
    More English than Spanish0.85 (0.50-1.44)0.62 (0.37-1.03)
    English and Spanish equally0.95 (0.52-1.74)0.49 (0.29-0.84)
    More Spanish than English0.67 (0.36-1.24)0.36 (0.21-0.64)
    Spanish only0.44 (0.22-0.89)0.37 (0.20-0.67)
Ptrend = 0.03Ptrend < 0.01
Birthplace, years in the United States, language spoken
    U.S.-born, mostly English1.01.0
    U.S.-born, English and Spanish1.13 (0.56-2.27)0.83 (0.56-1.22)
    U.S.-born, mostly Spanish0.32 (0.05-1.99)0.91 (0.45-1.84)
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly English2.08 (0.94-4.60)0.84 (0.50-1.44)
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, English and Spanish1.59 (0.81-3.12)0.58 (0.37-0.88)
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly Spanish1.00 (0.55-1.81)0.56 (0.39-0.81)
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly English1.11 (0.32-3.80)1.02 (0.13-8.20)
    Foreign-born, <20 y, English and Spanish0.80 (0.33-1.92)1.88 (0.18-19.39)
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly Spanish0.69 (0.40-1.18)0.39 (0.25-0.61)
Acculturation index
    4 (highest)1.01.0
    31.20 (0.77-1.88)0.68 (0.50-0.92)
    20.68 (0.41-1.13)0.45 (0.31-0.67)
    1 (lowest)0.49 (0.27-0.89)0.48 (0.31-0.73)
Ptrend = 0.02Ptrend < 0.01
  • * Adjusted for age, education, family history of breast cancer, history of benign breast disease, age at menarche, number of full-term pregnancies, breast-feeding, use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, height, BMI, lifetime physical activity, alcohol consumption, caloric intake, energy-adjusted fat intake, and energy-adjusted fiber intake.

  • Includes women born in the United States or other Western countries.

  • Excludes women with two or more moves between United States and foreign countries.

  • § Includes time spent in United States and other Western countries.

  • Excludes women with multiple moves between United States and foreign countries.

  • Categorized according to the approximate quartile distribution among premenopausal and postmenopausal controls combined.