Table 4.

Language usage, acculturation, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women, by menopausal status

Premenopausal women
Postmenopausal women
Cases (n = 376)Controls (n = 482)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)Cases (n = 615)Controls (n = 803)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)
Language chosen for interview
    English2502011.03913351.0
    Spanish1262810.36 (0.27-0.48)2244680.41 (0.33-0.51)
Language spoken now
    English only57381.061301.0
    More English than Spanish123990.79 (0.49-1.30)2011790.54 (0.34-0.88)
    English and Spanish equally71660.70 (0.41-1.19)1421690.41 (0.25-0.66)
    More Spanish than English771410.36 (0.22-0.60)1112100.26 (0.16-0.42)
    Spanish only451360.21 (0.13-0.37)982140.22 (0.14-0.37)
Ptrend < 0.01Ptrend < 0.01
Language spoken with friends
    English only135951.01751191.0
    More English than Spanish55580.68 (0.43-1.07)1211080.75 (0.53-1.07)
    English and Spanish equally53530.70 (0.44-1.12)1191560.52 (0.37-0.72)
    More Spanish than English35720.34 (0.21-0.55)621120.38 (0.25-0.55)
    Spanish only902010.32 (0.22-0.46)1333040.30 (0.22-0.41)
Ptrend < 0.01Ptrend < 0.01
Birthplace, years of residence in the United States, language spoken
    U.S.-born, mostly English1501171.02231721.0
    U.S.-born, English and Spanish23220.82 (0.44-1.55)83880.73 (0.51-1.04)
    U.S.-born, mostly Spanish250.30 (0.06-1.59)20200.77 (0.40-1.48)
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly English23131.36 (0.66-2.81)37350.82 (0.49-1.35)
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, English and Spanish36251.10 (0.63-1.94)80800.54 (0.36-0.80)
    Foreign-born, ≥20 y, mostly Spanish45790.43 (0.27-0.66)2312310.43 (0.32-0.58)
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly English770.84 (0.29-2.48)220.77 (0.11-5.55)
    Foreign-born, <20 y, English and Spanish12190.51 (0.24-1.10)312.31 (0.24-22.4)
    Foreign-born, <20 y, mostly Spanish751930.32 (0.22-0.46)591730.26 (0.18-0.38)
Acculturation index*
    4 (highest)1721311.02561921.0
    391840.85 (0.58-1.23)1732170.59 (0.45-0.78)
    2661280.40 (0.28-0.58)881820.36 (0.27-0.50)
    1 (lowest)441340.25 (0.17-0.38)922070.33 (0.25-0.45)
Ptrend < 0.01Ptrend < 0.01
  • * Categorized according to the approximate quartile distribution among premenopausal and postmenopausal controls combined.