Table 2.

Birthplace, timing of migration to the United States, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women, by menopausal status

Premenopausal women
Postmenopausal women
Cases (n = 376)Controls (n = 482)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)Cases (n = 615)Controls (n = 803)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)
Place of birth
    United States*1761461.03262811.0
    Foreign2003360.50 (0.38-0.67)2895220.48 (0.38-0.59)
        Mexico1172250.44 (0.32-0.60)1443000.41 (0.32-0.53)
        Central America50810.52 (0.34-0.78)861650.45 (0.33-0.61)
        Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic8110.61 (0.24-1.57)20180.96 (0.50-1.85)
        South America24171.26 (0.65-2.45)33380.75 (0.46-1.22)
    Other120.44 (0.04-4.99)615.16 (0.62-43.14)
Type of residence before migration
    U.S.-born1761461.03262811.0
    Urban1041350.65 (0.46-0.91)1342260.51 (0.39-0.67)
    Mixed urban and rural43820.45 (0.29-0.69)781540.44 (0.32-0.60)
    Rural531160.38 (0.26-0.56)761410.46 (0.34-0.64)
Years of residence in the United States*,,
    U.S.-born1661401.03112551.0
    ≥40961.17 (0.41-3.38)821030.66 (0.47-0.92)
    30-3925200.99 (0.52-1.87)771150.55 (0.39-0.76)
    20-2957770.62 (0.41-0.94)40980.33 (0.22-0.50)
    10-19661340.43 (0.30-0.62)35930.31 (0.20-0.47)
    <1025650.34 (0.20-0.57)23680.28 (0.17-0.46)
Ptrend < 0.01Ptrend < 0.01
% of Life spent in the United States*,,
    100% (U.S.-born)1661401.03112551.0
    75-99%21141.27 (0.62-2.60)37410.74 (0.46-1.19)
    50-74%56750.62 (0.41-0.94)1131800.52 (0.39-0.69)
    25-49%721410.45 (0.31-0.65)651430.37 (0.27-0.52)
    <25%33720.39 (0.25-0.63)421130.31 (0.21-0.45)
Ptrend < 0.01Ptrend < 0.01
Age at migration to the United States*,
    U.S.-born1661401.03112551.0
    <1017131.14 (0.53-2.43)19200.79 (0.41-1.51)
    10-1947580.72 (0.46-1.13)48580.69 (0.45-1.05)
    20-29641210.48 (0.33-0.71)741410.44 (0.31-0.61)
    30-3944900.40 (0.26-0.62)48960.42 (0.28-0.61)
    ≥4010200.35 (0.16-0.78)681620.34 (0.25-0.48)
Ptrend < 0.01Ptrend < 0.01
  • * U.S.-born reference group includes women born in the United States or other Western countries (i.e., Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand).

  • Excludes women with two or more lifetime moves between the United States and foreign countries.

  • Includes time spent in United States and other Western countries.