Table 4.

Age- and multivariate-adjusted RRs and 95% CIs of breast cancer according to dairy product intake, CPS II Nutrition Cohort women (1992-2001)

FoodnCasesRR* (95% CI)RR (95% CI)Ptrend
Total dairy (servings/d)
    <0.57,0343001.001.00
    0.5-114,8406300.99 (0.86-1.13)0.96 (0.83-1.10)
    >1-226,1381,1210.99 (0.88-1.13)0.93 (0.82-1.06)
    >2-310,5334070.90 (0.77-1.04)0.81 (0.69-0.95)
    >310,0223970.91 (0.78-1.06)0.81 (0.69-0.96)0.002
Low-fat dairy (servings/d)§
    <0.516,0646671.001.00
    0.5-116,7787071.00 (0.90-1.11)0.96 (0.86-1.07)
    >1-222,3609471.00 (0.91-1.11)0.94 (0.85-1.04)
    >2-35,6842230.94 (0.81-1.09)0.85 (0.73-1.00)
    >37,6813110.95 (0.83-1.08)0.86 (0.74-0.99)0.016
High-fat dairy (servings/wk)§
    <0.316,5446781.001.00
    0.3-113,1535581.05 (0.94-1.17)1.03 (0.92-1.16)
    >1-210,7404781.09 (0.97-1.23)1.06 (0.94-1.19)
    >2-413,1225681.07 (0.96-1.19)1.02 (0.91-1.15)
    >415,0085730.95 (0.85-1.06)0.89 (0.79-1.00)0.12
Total milk (servings/d)
    Non–milk drinker18,9238101.001.00
    <0.57,2092790.91 (0.79-1.04)0.90 (0.78-1.03)
    0.5-113,2695560.97 (0.87-1.08)0.96 (0.86-1.06)
    >1-219,2618050.97 (0.88-1.07)0.94 (0.85-1.04)
    >2-33,0141291.00 (0.83-1.20)0.97 (0.80-1.17)
    >36,8912760.91 (0.80-1.05)0.88 (0.76-1.02)0.13
Milk type (servings/d)
    Non–milk drinker18,9238101.001.00
    Whole milk only2,183840.92 (0.74-1.16)0.97 (0.78-1.22)
    Low-fat milk only <0.56,0622380.92 (0.80-1.06)0.90 (0.78-1.04)
    Low-fat milk only 0.5-111,5614930.99 (0.88-1.10)0.96 (0.86-1.08)
    Low-fat milk only >1-217,2257220.97 (0.88-1.07)0.94 (0.85-1.04)
    Low fat milk only >2-32,4181041.00 (0.81-1.22)0.95 (0.77-1.17)
    Low-fat milk only >36,3182550.92 (0.80-1.06)0.88 (0.76-1.02)
    Combination of milks3,8771490.90 (0.76-1.07)0.90 (0.75-1.07)
  • * Age-adjusted.

  • Additionally controlled for energy, history of breast cyst, family history of breast cancer, height, weight gain since age 18, alcohol use, race, age at menopause, age at first birth and number of live births, education, mammography history, and HRT use.

  • Dairy products include low fat cheese, yogurt, low fat yogurt, ice cream, whole milk, low fat milk, skim milk, and cheese from pizza.

  • § Low-fat dairy and high-fat dairy are additionally controlled for each other.

  • Milk products include whole milk, low fat milk, and skim milk.