Table 3.

Age- and multivariate-adjusted RRs and 95% CIs of breast cancer according to calcium and vitamin D intake, CPS II Nutrition Cohort women (1992-2001)

NutrientnCasesRR* (95% CI)RR (95% CI)Ptrend
Dietary calcium (mg/d)
    ≤50017,1947391.001.00
    >500-≤75025,4351,0650.96 (0.88-1.06)0.95 (0.86-1.04)
    >750-≤1,00015,0676340.96 (0.87-1.07)0.96 (0.86-1.06)
    >1,000-≤1,2506,5162650.93 (0.81-1.07)0.91 (0.79-1.05)
    >1,2504,3551520.79 (0.66-0.94)0.80 (0.67-0.95)0.02
Supplemental calcium (mg/d)
    None32,8551,3531.001.00
    <25015,2216421.02 (0.93-1.12)1.01 (0.92-1.11)
    250-<5004,4641901.03 (0.88-1.20)0.99 (0.85-1.16)
    500-<1,0009,8443950.96 (0.86-1.07)0.90 (0.81-1.01)
    1,000+6,1832751.07 (0.94-1.22)0.98 (0.86-1.12)0.23
Total calcium (mg/d)
    ≤50010,6204571.001.00
    >500-≤75017,8807290.94 (0.84-1.06)0.91 (0.81-1.02)
    >750-≤1,00014,0235810.95 (0.84-1.07)0.92 (0.81-1.04)
    >1,000-≤1,2509,1204071.02 (0.89-1.17)0.97 (0.85-1.11)
    >1,250-≤1,5006,2962480.90 (0.77-1.04)0.84 (0.72-0.98)
    >1,500-≤1,7503,9831440.81 (0.67-0.98)0.76 (0.63-0.92)
    >1,7506,6452890.99 (0.85-1.14)0.91 (0.79-1.06)0.07
Dietary vitamin D (IU/d)
    ≤10019,5478301.001.00
    >100-≤20030,3021,2570.96 (0.88-1.05)0.96 (0.88-1.05)
    >200-≤30012,5595340.98 (0.88-1.09)0.98 (0.88-1.10)
    >3006,1592340.87 (0.75-1.00)0.89 (0.76-1.03)0.21
Total vitamin D (IU/d)
    ≤10012,7075291.001.00
    >100-≤20019,5758261.00 (0.90-1.11)0.99 (0.88-1.10)
    >200-≤3008,4943260.91 (0.79-1.04)0.90 (0.78-1.03)
    >300-≤4005,3392200.98 (0.84-1.14)0.95 (0.81-1.11)
    >400-≤5006,3042410.91 (0.78-1.06)0.86 (0.73-1.00)
    >500-≤6006,4253041.12 (0.97-1.29)1.08 (0.93-1.24)
    >600-≤7004,6092061.05 (0.89-1.23)1.03 (0.87-1.21)
    >7005,1142030.94 (0.80-1.10)0.95 (0.81-1.13)0.98
  • * Age-adjusted model.

  • Multivariate-adjusted model controlling for age, energy, history of breast cyst, family history of breast cancer, height, weight gain since age 18, alcohol use, race, age at menopause, age at first birth and number of live births, education, mammography history, and HRT.

  • Dietary and supplemental calcium are controlled for each other.