Table 1.

Baseline characteristics according to quintile of energy-adjusted GL among NHS cohort participants and HPFS participants

CharacteristicsNHS (quintiles of GL*)
HPFS (quintiles of GL*)
No. individuals16,77616,78216,7359,4769,4999,444
Glycemic load (mean)76119175127177230
Age (y)474747545454
Height (in.)656564707070
BMI (kg/m2)242425262625
Current smokers (%)352627178.55.4
Pack-years of cigarettes7.56.96.8121111
Family history (%)
Endoscopy history (%)151515272829
Diabetes (%)
Aspirin use (%)515151302928
Mean daily intake
    Calories (kcal)1,5521,5831,5361,9572,0241,930
    Total fat (g)§827057827358
    Carbohydrate (g)§108156201179235292
    Protein (g)§84.877.164.799.893.383.4
    Alcohol (g)125.43.1239.34.3
    Total calcium (mg)§696775674868910911
    Total folate (μg)§344372378435476539
    Red meat (servings/wk)
    Cereal fiber (g)
  • NOTE: All variables (except age) are age-standardized; mean values are presented for continuous variables and percentages are shown for categorical variables.

  • * Quintile cut points NHS: <93, 93-111, 112-127, 128-148, >148; quintile cut points HPFS: <147, 147-167, 168-185, 186-206, <206.

  • Exercise in NHS is in hours per week and in METs/week for the HFPS.

  • Pack-years are calculated for current and past smokers before age 30.

  • § Energy-adjusted nutrient values.

  • Beef, pork, or lamb as main dish.