Table 3.

Hazard ratios of colorectal cancer, colon cancer, and rectal cancer by consumption of fresh red meat, processed meat, chicken, and fish

Quarter of frequency of consumption [Hazard Ratio (95% CI)*]
Hazard ratio (95% CI) for increase of one time per weekP for trend
234 (Highest)
Fresh red meat
    Colorectal1.4 (1.1–1.9)1.5 (1.1–2.1)1.4 (1.0–1.9)1.03 (0.98–1.08)0.2
    Colon1.2 (0.8–1.7)1.3 (0.9–1.9)1.1 (0.7–1.6)1.00 (0.94–1.07)0.9
    Rectal2.2 (1.3–4.0)2.2 (1.2–3.9)2.3 (1.2–4.2)1.08 (0.99–1.16)0.07
Processed meat
    Colorectal1.3 (1.0–1.7)1.0 (0.8–1.4)1.5 (1.1–2.0)1.07 (1.02–1.13)0.01
    Colon1.1 (0.8–1.6)0.8 (0.6–1.1)1.3 (0.9–1.9)1.07 (1.00–1.14)0.06
    Rectal1.9 (1.1–3.2)1.7 (1.0–2.9)2.0 (1.1–3.4)1.08 (0.99–1.18)0.09
Chicken
    Colorectal1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.3)0.7 (0.6–1.0)0.92 (0.85–0.99)0.03
    Colon1.0 (0.8–1.4)0.8 (0.6–1.1)0.7 (0.5–1.1)0.92 (0.83–1.01)0.08
    Rectal0.9 (0.6–1.5)1.4 (1.0–2.0)0.7 (0.5–1.2)0.91 (0.80–1.04)0.2
Fish
    Colorectal0.9 (0.7–1.2)0.9 (0.7–1.1)0.9 (0.7–1.2)0.99 (0.91–1.08)0.8
    Colon0.9 (0.6–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.01 (0.90–1.12)0.9
    Rectal0.9 (0.6–1.5)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.9 (0.6–1.4)0.97 (0.84–1.12)0.8
Ratio of fresh red meat to chicken and fish
    Colorectal1.1 (0.9–1.5)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.3 (1.0–1.7)1.13 (1.00–1.28)0.05
    Colon1.2 (0.8–1.7)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.09 (0.93–1.27)0.3
    Rectal1.1 (0.7–1.8)1.2 (0.7–1.9)1.4 (0.9–2.2)1.19 (0.98–1.46)0.08
  • * Adjusted for sex, country of birth, and intake of energy, fat, and cereal products using Cox's proportional hazard model with age as the time metric. See Table 1 for ranges of each quarter.

  • For ratio of consumption of fresh red meat to chicken and fish, hazard ratio is for a one-unit increase in the ratio.

  • See text for details on calculation of P.