Table 4.

RRs for SCC associated with serum carotenoid levels with adjustment for another carotenoid

MicronutrientsTertile*RR95% CIP for trend
α-Carotene and lutein
α-Carotene11.000.22
21.400.80-2.48
31.540.81-2.91
Lutein11.000.03
21.440.81-2.55
31.390.73-2.66
α-Carotene and zeaxanthin
α-Carotene11.000.06
21.270.73-2.22
31.460.79-2.71
Zeaxanthin11.000.02
21.640.92-2.91
32.211.19-4.13
β-Carotene and lutein
β-Carotene11.000.32
20.990.55-1.78
31.240.65-2.38
Lutein11.000.04
21.440.79-2.62
31.500.76-2.95
β-Carotene and zeaxanthin
β-Carotene11.000.25
20.880.49-1.60
31.060.56-2.03
Zeaxanthin11.000.03
21.760.95-3.25
32.381.24-4.58
  • NOTE: Stratified by clinic and gender and adjusted for baseline age, solar damage, skin type, number of prior BCCs, number of prior SCCs, body mass index, treatment group, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and other carotenoid.

  • * Tertile cut points for males (μg/dL): α-carotene: 1 (<1.81), 2 (1.81-3.51), 3 (3.52+); β-carotene: 1 (<10.50), 2 (10.50-20.37), 3 (20.38+); lutein: 1 (<10.95), 2 (10.95-16.86), 3 (16.87+); zeaxanthin: 1 (<4.08), 2 (4.08-6.13), 3 (6.14+). Tertile cut points for females (μg/dL): α-carotene: 1 (<3.18), 2 (3.18-6.08), 3 (6.09+); β-carotene: 1 (<14.65), 2 (14.65-29.59), 3 (29.60+); lutein: 1 (<13.31), 2 (13.31-20.73), 3 (20.74+); zeaxanthin: 1 (<4.26), 2 (4.26-6.28), 3 (6.29+).