Table 3.

RRs for BCC and SCC associated with serum carotenoid and α-tocopherol levels

MicronutrientsTertile*BCC
SCC
Cases (n)Noncases (n)RR95% CIP for trendCases (n)Noncases (n)RR95% CIP for trend
α-Carotene174261.000.5627731.000.04
276261.210.87-1.7031711.480.85-2.56
371291.060.74-1.5127731.450.92-3.06
β-Carotene177231.000.9426741.000.06
269330.770.55-1.0930721.090.62-1.93
375251.010.71-1.4429711.470.81-2.68
Lycopene179201.000.5631681.000.74
266340.720.50-1.0329711.060.59-1.89
374261.010.70-1.4523770.990.58-2.01
Lutein176241.000.6823771.000.01
274280.810.58-1.1434681.500.85-2.68
371291.040.72-1.5028721.630.88-3.01
Zeaxanthin175251.000.3725751.000.01
276260.940.66-1.3230721.750.99-3.08
370300.970.64-1.3930702.401.30-4.42
β-Cryptoxanthin178221.000.4225751.000.09
268340.840.59-1.1926761.450.80-2.65
375251.060.75-1.5034662.151.21-3.83
α-Tocopherol173271.000.5330701.000.14
276260.970.69-1.3825771.240.67-2.19
372281.150.78-1.7130701.600.87-3.08
  • * Tertile cut points for males (μg/dL): α-carotene: 1 (<1.81), 2 (1.81-3.51), 3 (3.52+); β-carotene: 1 (<10.50), 2 (10.50-20.37), 3 (20.38+); lycopene: 1 (<30.88), 2 (30.88-49.60), 3 (49.61+); lutein: 1 (<10.95), 2 (10.95-16.91), 3 (16.92+); zeaxanthin: 1 (<4.11), 2 (4.11-6.13), 3 (6.14+); β-cryptoxanthin: 1 (<4.42), 2 (4.42-7.34), 3 (7.35+); α-tocopherol: 1 (<1,088.95), 2 (1,088.95-1,382.37), 3 (1,382.38+). Tertile cut points for females (μg/dL): α-carotene: 1 (<3.23), 2 (3.23-6.08), 3 (6.09+); β-carotene: 1 (<14.65), 2 (14.65-26.57), 3 (26.58+); lycopene: 1 (<34.87), 2 (34.87-54.40), 3 (54.41+); lutein: 1 (<13.31), 2 (13.31-20.73), 3 (20.74+); zeaxanthin: 1 (<4.26), 2 (4.26-6.28), 3 (6.29+); β-cryptoxanthin: 1 (<5.26), 2 (5.26-9.50), 3 (9.51+); α-tocopherol: 1 (<1,258.73), 2 (1,258.73-1,518.30), 3 (1,518.31+).

  • Stratified by clinic and gender and adjusted for baseline age, solar damage, skin type, number of prior BCCs, body mass index, treatment group, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.

  • Stratified by clinic and gender and adjusted for baseline age, solar damage, skin type, number of prior BCCs, number of prior SCCs, body mass index, treatment group, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.