Table 2.

Maternal occupational exposure and ras mutation among childhood ALL cases

Maternal Occupational ExposureExposure PeriodK-ras Mutation
N-ras Mutation
−Cases (n = 710)+Cases (n = 40)Adjusted OR (95% CI)+Cases (n = 89)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Solvents, degreasers, or cleaning agentsAny time5751.8 (0.6-4.8)81.2 (0.5-2.5)
Before pregnancy4242.0 (0.7-6.3)61.2 (0.5-2.8)
During pregnancy3043.1 (1.0-9.7)41.0 (0.4-3.1)
After pregnancy35051.2 (0.4-3.1)
Plastic materialsAny time724.5 (0.9-24.0)11.1 (0.1-9.3)
Before pregnancy624.9 (0.9-26.5)0
During pregnancy526.9 (1.2-39.7)0
After pregnancy528.3 (1.4-48.8)11.7 (0.2-14.8)
Paints or thinnersAny time5641.3 (0.4-3.9)71.0 (0.4-2.2)
Before pregnancy2921.0 (0.2-4.6)61.6 (0.6-4.1)
During pregnancy3321.0 (0.2-4.4)61.5 (0.6-3.6)
After pregnancy4331.4 (0.4-4.9)61.1 (0.4-2.7)
Oil or coal productsAny time3910.5 (0.1-4.0)102.3 (1.1-4.8)
Before pregnancy22062.3 (0.9-5.9)
During pregnancy17041.9 (0.6-5.9)
After pregnancy2710.7 (0.1-5.7)72.3 (1.0-5.5)
Other hydrocarbonsAny time8540.9 (0.3-2.6)80.8 (0.3-1.6)
Before pregnancy5741.3 (0.4-3.8)60.9 (0.4-2.1)
During pregnancy4520.8 (0.2-3.8)61.1 (0.5-2.7)
After pregnancy5810.3 (0.1-2.6)60.9 (0.4-2.1)
Any hydrocarbonsAny time15391.2 (0.5-2.6)191.0 (0.6-1.7)
Before pregnancy10081.5 (0.7-3.5)161.3 (0.7-2.4)
During pregnancy8671.6 (0.6-3.8)121.1 (0.6-2.2)
After pregnancy11350.9 (0.3-2.4)130.9 (0.5-1.7)
  • NOTE: Adjusted for maternal race, education, age, family income, and child's age and sex.