Table 1.

AICR Recommendations, Operationalization in This Study, and Percentage of Cohort Following the Recommendation (n= 30,518)

RecommendationDescriptionOperationalizationCategoriesn (%)
1. Food supply and eatingChoose predominately plant-based diets rich in a variety of vegetables and fruits, pulses, and minimally processed starchy staple foodsNot included
2. Body weightAvoid being underweight or overweightBody mass index (kg/m2) at baseline (1986)≤25.012,360 (40.5)
>25.018,158 (59.5)
Limit weight gain during adulthood to <5 kg (11 pounds)Weight gain since age 18Gained <11 pounds6,977 (22.9)
Gained ≥11 pounds23,416 (76.7)
Missing values125 (0.4)
3. Physical activityIf occupational physical activity is low, exercise moderately daily and exercise vigorously at least 1 hour per weekUsual recreational physical activity at baseline (1986)Active8,556 (28.0)
Not active21,801 (71.4)
Missing values161 (0.5)
4. Vegetables and fruitsEat 400-800 g (15-30 ounces) or five or more portions a day of a variety of vegetables and fruits, all year-round (excluding pulses and starchy vegetables)Daily vegetable and fruit consumption, excluding pulses and starchy vegetables<5 servings per day27,157 (89.0)
≥5 servings per day3,361 (11.0)
5. Other plant foodsEat 600-800 g (20-30 ounces) or seven or more portions a day of a variety of cereals, pulses, roots, tubers, and plantains; prefer minimally processed foods; limit refined sugarDaily intake of complex carbohydrates >400 g (∼80th percentile)<400 g25,133 (82.4)
≥400 g5,385 (17.6)
6. Alcoholic drinksAlcohol consumption is not recommended; if consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to less than one drink a day for womenDaily alcohol intake (one drink ≅ 14 g of alcohol)<14 g28,030 (91.8)
≥14 g2,488 (8.2)
7. MeatIf eaten at all, limit red meat intake to <80 g (3 ounces) dailyDaily red meat intake (beef, lamb, pork, and products from these meats)<80 g15,497 (50.8)
≥80 g15,021 (49.2)
8. Total fats and oilsLimit intake of fatty foods, particularly those of animal origin; choose moderate amounts of appropriate vegetable oilsDaily consumption of fat as percentage total calories≤30%7,101 (23.3)
>30%23,417 (76.7)
9. Salt and saltingLimit consumption of salted foods and use of cooking and table salt; use herbs and spices to season foodsDaily sodium consumption from diet questionnaire plus use of table salt<2,400 mg20,290 (66.5)
≥2,400 mg10,228 (33.5)
10. StorageDo not eat food that, as a result of long storage at ambient temperatures, is liable to contamination by mycotoxinsNot included
11. PreservationUse refrigeration and other appropriate methods to preserve perishable food as purchased and at homeNot included
12. Additives and residuesWhen levels of additives, contaminants, and other residues are properly regulated, their presence in food and drink is not known to be harmfulNot included
13. PreparationDo not eat charred food; avoid burning of meat juices; consume the following only occasionally: meat and fish grilled (broiled) in direct flame, cured and smoked meatsNot included
14. Dietary supplementsFor those who follow dietary recommendations, supplements are probably unnecessary and possibly unhelpful for reducing cancer riskNot included
TobaccoDo not smoke or chew tobaccoEver vs never smoked cigarettesNever smoked19,966 (65.4)
Ever smoked10,144 (33.2)
Missing values408 (1.3)