Table 3.

Relative risk for colorectal adenoma according to quintiles of dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, and carbohydrate intake

Quintiles of energy-adjusted dietary intake
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)Ptrend
Glycemic index
    Median68.672.374.576.779.9
    Adenoma (n = 1,715)
        Age-adjusted 11.03 (0.89-1.20)0.96 (0.82-1.12)0.87 (0.75-1.02)1.07 (0.92-1.25)0.99
        Multivariate*11.09 (0.93-1.27)1.01 (0.87-1.19)0.92 (0.78-1.08)1.11 (0.94-1.32)0.66
    Large (n = 704)
        Age-adjusted10.98 (0.78-1.23)0.92 (0.73-1.16)0.84 (0.66-1.07)1.00 (0.79-1.26)0.60
        Multivariate11.04 (0.82-1.31)0.97 (0.76-1.23)0.88 (0.69-1.14)1.01 (0.78-1.31)0.73
    Small (n = 894)
        Age-adjusted11.14 (0.92-1.40)1.01 (0.82-1.25)0.96 (0.78-1.20)1.18 (0.96-1.46)0.38
        Multivariate11.18 (0.96-1.46)1.07 (0.86-1.34)1.01 (0.80-1.27)1.26 (1.00-1.60)0.18
Glycemic load
    Median103.7123.5135.9148.1166.8
    Adenoma (n = 1,715)
        Age-adjusted10.89 (0.76-1.03)0.93 (0.80-1.09)0.87 (0.75-1.02)0.72 (0.61-0.84)0.0001
        Multivariate*10.97 (0.82-1.14)1.10 (0.93-1.30)1.07 (0.89-1.27)0.92 (0.76-1.11)0.63
    Large (n = 704)
        Age-adjusted10.87 (0.69-1.09)0.88 (0.70-1.11)0.80 (0.64-1.02)0.65 (0.51-0.83)0.001
        Multivariate11.01 (0.79-1.30)1.15 (0.89-1.48)1.11 (0.85-1.46)0.96 (0.71-1.29)1.00
    Small (n = 894)
        Age-adjusted10.94 (0.76-1.16)1.03 (0.84-1.27)1.04 (0.85-1.28)0.79 (0.63-0.99)0.12
        Multivariate10.95 (0.76-1.19)1.08 (0.86-1.36)1.11 (0.87-1.41)0.86 (0.66-1.12)0.51
Carbohydrate intake
    Median (% of energy)35.341.545.148.653.5
    Adenoma (n = 1,715)
        Age-adjusted10.85 (0.73-0.99)0.90 (0.78-1.05)0.84 (0.72-0.98)0.69 (0.59-0.81)<0.0001
        Multivariate*10.91 (0.77-1.07)1.04 (0.88-1.24)1.03 (0.85-1.24)0.90 (0.73-1.11)0.64
    Large (n = 704)
        Age-adjusted10.79 (0.63-1.00)0.77 (0.61-0.97)0.79 (0.63-0.99)0.61 (0.48-0.77)0.0001
        Multivariate10.91 (0.71-1.17)1.00 (0.77-1.31)1.12 (0.84-1.48)0.96 (0.70-1.32)0.83
    Small (n = 894)
        Age-adjusted10.94 (0.75-1.16)1.08 (0.88-1.33)0.97 (0.79-1.20)0.83 (0.66-1.03)0.15
        Multivariate10.93 (0.73-1.17)1.10 (0.87-1.40)1.01 (0.78-1.31)0.89 (0.67-1.18)0.57
  • * Multivariate model included age, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, family history of colon cancer, history of endoscopic screening or polyp diagnosis, year of endoscopy, aspirin use, menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use, physical activity, energy intake, total fiber, red meat, folate, calcium, and vitamin D intake.