Table 2.

Age-standardized baseline characteristics*according to quintiles of energy-adjusted dietary glycemic index and dietary glycemic load

Quintiles of dietary glycemic index
Quintiles of dietary glycemic load
1 (lowest) 35 (highest)1 (lowest)35 (highest)
Age at endoscopy (y)58.959.457.657.159.259.8
BMI (kg/m2)24.424.424.324.424.524.0
Smoking (pack-years smoked)12.710.410.615.410.07.9
Vigorous exercise (%)
Family history of colorectal cancer (%)22.622.922.721.623.223.1
Previous endoscopy before 1980 (%)14.310.713.216.111.410.8
Postmenopausal hormone use (%)15.917.616.516.818.417.1
Any aspirin use (%)
Daily dietary intake
    Total energy (kcal)1,5541,5901,5211,5621,5921,533
    Glycemic index69.573.177.1
    Glycemic load101120144
    Carbohydrate (g)145155166119155192
    Total fat (g)68.269.769.577.569.859.7
    Protein (g) 84.676.569.182.577.768.4
    Saturated fat (g)28.027.927.331.528.023.5
    Calcium (mg)906743563720759703
    Vitamin D (IU)358299237282296303
    Folate (μg)429378317355369392
    Dietary fiber (g)14.914.112.511.814.115.7
    Cereal fiber (g)
    Vegetable fiber (g)
    Fruit fiber (g)
    Beef, pork or lamb as a main dish (servings/d)
    Alcohol (g)
  • * Included cases and controls.

  • Sweat-producing exercise at least once per week.