Table 4.

Selected OR and 95% CI of gene-environment interaction with indicator-term approach from conventional analyses and hierarchical modeling

AlleleEnvironmental exposureCase no.Control no.Conventional
Hierarchical (1)
Hierarchical (2)
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
COMTSmoking
Val/ValNever3141 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
Val/ValEver59436.23 (1.68-23.1)3.90 (1.76-8.67)5.07 (1.66-15.4)
Val/Met, Met/MetNever14391.61 (0.40-6.50)0.95 (0.45-2.02)1.28 (0.40-4.06)
Val/Met, Met/MetEver1251184.78 (1.33-17.1)3.18 (1.30-7.78)3.99 (1.30-12.3)
NQO1Smoking
Pro/ProNever6361 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
Pro/ProEver107996.46 (2.61-16.0)4.00 (1.97-8.10)5.93 (2.34-12.5)
Pro/Ser, Ser/SerNever11173.86 (1.22-12.1)1.79 (0.89-3.58)2.89 (1.06-7.89)
Pro/Ser, Ser/SerEver77627.40 (2.93-18.7)5.11 (2.26-11.6)6.43 (2.65-15.6)
MPOPAH exposure
A/ANever2131 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
A/AEver593.45 (0.54-22.0)1.44 (0.66-3.16)2.14 (0.54-8.45)
G/G, G/ANever1221286.03 (1.33-27.3)3.37 (1.22-9.30)4.38 (1.24-15.5)
G/G, G/AEver72647.16 (1.55-33.0)4.19 (1.36-12.9)5.34 (1.42-20.0)
GSTT1AA exposure
presentNever1431701 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
presentEver15111.63 (0.73-3.67)1.71 (0.79-3.70)1.69 (0.77-3.69)
nullNever40321.51 (0.90-2.53)1.54 (0.93-2.55)1.53 (0.92-2.54)
nullEver314.02 (0.41-39.6)2.75 (0.89-8.47)3.13 (0.62-15.9)
  • NOTE: (1) Pre-specified τ2 = 0.05; (2) pre-specified τ2 = 0.35.

    Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio adjusted for age; PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; AA, aromatic amines.