Table 4.

Urine and serum levels of phytoestrogens among women grouped according to tertiles of dietary intakes (n = 284–333)

Tertiles of dietary intakeUrinary levels (μg/mmol creatinine)
Serum levels (ng/ml)
Geometric mean (SD)P for ANOVAP for trendGeometric mean (SD)P for ANOVAP for trend
DaidzeinDaidzein<0.001<0.001Daidzein0.0540.016
    1st tertile11.5 (3.4)1.6 (3.3)
    2nd tertile16.1 (3.2)2.0 (3.4)
    3rd tertile22.4 (3.3)2.5 (3.4)
GenisteinGenistein<0.001<0.001Genistein0.001<0.001
    1st tertile6.5 (2.8)5.0 (2.3)
    2nd tertile7.9 (2.8)5.5 (2.2)
    3rd tertile12.8 (2.9)7.7 (2.4)
FiberLignans<0.001<0.001Lignans0.0030.001
    1st tertile66.9 (2.8)3.5 (2.7)
    2nd tertile87.0 (3.3)4.2 (3.2)
    3rd tertile140.2 (3.3)6.0 (3.1)