Table 1.

Dietary intake of fiber and dietary intake, urinary excretion (adjusted for creatinine concentration), and serum levels of phytoestrogens

Geometric mean ± SDRange*,Percentile
25th50th75th
Dietary intake (μg/day), n = 331
    Isoflavones
        Daidzein193.8 ± 2.40.4–6312.2131.2205.5290.7
        Genistein243.4 ± 2.23.5–7675.4167.4247.2350.8
    Fiber (g/day)13.3 ± 1.43.3–43.810.613.716.9
Urinary excretion (μg/mmol creatinine), n = 333
    Isoflavones
        Daidzein16.0 ± 3.3ND to 833.07.717.237.3
        Genistein8.6 ± 2.9ND to 489.93.87.919.3
        Glycitein2.9 ± 2.4ND to 56.00.82.56.3
        O-DMA0.8 ± 2.3ND to 226.30.00.21.3
        Equol0.5 ± 2.1ND to 119.70.00.10.7
    Lignans
        Enterodiol7.8 ± 2.6ND to 438.53.57.816.1
        Enterolactone78.5 ± 3.7ND to 9790.940.493.5193.3
Serum levels (ng/ml), n = 284
    Isoflavones
        Daidzein2.0 ± 3.40.1–44.81.02.24.5
        Genistein4.1 ± 2.7ND to 159.71.33.58.5
        Glycitein0.1 ± 1.2ND to 1.20.00.10.2
        O-DMA0.1 ± 1.5ND to 31.90.00.00.2
        Equol0.2 ± 1.3ND to 8.00.10.10.2
    Lignans
        Enterodiol0.4 ± 1.4ND to 8.10.10.30.6
        Enterolactone3.8 ± 3.6ND to 388.12.34.58.7
  • *ND indicates that the analyte was not detected (i.e., zero value or value below the limit of detection of the assay). Limits of detection (ng/ml) for urine analyses by GC/MS after correction for dilution of sample were as follows: daidzein 1.9, genistein 1.9, glycitein 6.5, O-DMA 7.5, equol 1.9, enterodiol 1.8, and enterolactone 8.0. Limits of detection (ng/ml) for serum analyses by LC/MS after correction for concentration of sample were as follows: daidzein 0.04, genistein 0.06, glycitein 0.06, O-DMA 0.06, equol 0.11, enterodiol 0.08, and enterolactone 0.05.

  • Based on untransformed data.