Table 2.

RRs and 95% CIs of prostate cancer by lycopene intake and serum lycopene

AuthorDiet lycopene (moderate intake)Diet lycopene (high intake)Serum lycopene (moderate value)Serum lycopene (high value)Cases/controls or cohort sizeVariables of adjustment
Case-control studies
    Key et al. (5)0.90 (0.63–1.29)0.99 (0.68–1.45)Age, energy intake, ethnicity
    Meyer et al. (26)1.28 (0.81–2.01)1.73 (0.92–3.26)215/593Age, education, family history, energy intake
    Jain et al. (3)0.90 (0.74–1.10)1.01 (0.76–1.35)617/636Age, total energy, vasectomy, smoking, marital status, study area, BMI, vitamin use, diet
    Deneo-Pelligrini et al. (27)1.13 (0.76–1.68)1.2 (0.7–2.2)175/233Age, residence, education, family history, BMI, energy intake
    Cohen et al. (4)1.08 (0.83–1.39)0.89 (0.60–1.31)628/602Age, race, fat, energy, family history, BMI, antigen tests, education
    Norrish et al. (16)0.81 (0.60– 1.11)0.76 (0.50–1.17)317/480Age, height, NSAIDs, socioeconomic status
    Lu et al. (19)1.03 (0.44– 2.38)0.69 (0.23–2.08)0.45 (0.21–0.96)0.17 (0.04–0.78)65/132Age, race, smoking, education, family history, alcohol, calories
    Vogt et al. (10)0.84 (0.57–1.23)0.65 (0.36–1.15)209/228Age, race, study center, time of blood draw
Cohort or nested case-control studies
    Hsing et al. (18)0.69 (0.39–1.23)0.50 (0.20–1.29)103/103Age, race, smoking, education, time of last meal
    Cerhan et al. (25)0.5 (0.3–0.9)101/1575Age, energy, nondietary factors
    Nomura et al. (20)1.00 (0.64–1.57)1.1 (0.5–2.2)142/142Age, smoking
    Gann et al. (17)0.89 (0.74–1.07)0.75 (0.54–1.06)578/1294Age, smoking, exercise, follow-up time, BMI, plasma cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin use
    Giovanucci et al. (22)1.01 (0.92–1.10)0.84 (0.73–0.96)2481/47,365Age, time, family history, BMI, energy intake, vitamins
    Schuurman et al. (24)0.95 (0.79–1.14)0.98 (0.71–1.34)642/58,279Age, history, socioeconomic status, alcohol
    Huang et al. (CLUE I; Ref. 28)0.85 (0.62–1.18)0.83 (0.46–1.48)182/364Age, race, date of blood donation, total lipid level, hours since last meal, education
    Huang et al. (CLUE II; 28)0.82 (0.56–1.21)0.79 (0.41–1.54)142/284Age, race, date of blood donation, total lipid level, hours since last meal, education, BMI
  • Note: Moderate intake corresponds to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of the distribution, while high intake corresponds to the 5th quintile. Moderate value corresponds to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of the distribution, while high value corresponds to the 5th quintile.