Table 1.

RRs and 95% CIs of prostate cancer by tomato intake

AuthorRaw tomatoes (moderate intake)Raw tomatoes (high intake)Cooked tomatoes (moderate intake)Cooked tomatoes (high intake)Cases/controls or cohort sizeVariables of adjustment
Case-control studies
    Key et al. (5)1.18 (0.87–1.60)1.06 (0.55–1.62)0.89 (0.66–1.20)0.92 (0.59–1.42)328/328Age, energy intake, ethnicity
    Tzonou et al. (2)0.85 (0.40–1.81)0.53 (0.08–2.9)0.64 (0.27–1.53)0.46 (0.04–3.60)320/246Age, height, BMI, energy intake
    Jain et al. (3)0.77 (0.64–0.94)0.64 (0.45–0.91)617/636Age, calories, vasectomy, smoking, marital status, study location, BMI, vitamin use, diet
    Cohen et al. (4)1.20 (0.89–1.62)1.22 (0.83–1.80)0.97 (0.73–1.30)0.90 (0.57–1.42)682/602Age, race, fat, energy, family history, BMI, antigen tests, education
    Villeneuve et al. (14)0.98 (0.84–1.14)1.0 (0.7–1.3)1623/1623Age, location, race, smoking, BMI, diet, alcohol, income, diet, family history
    Kolonel et al. (15)1.00 (0.87–1.15)1.07 (0.83–1.38)1.07 (1.06–1.08)0.94 (0.58–1.52)1619/1618Age, education, race
    Norrish et al. (16)0.89 (0.67–1.19)1.01 (0.66–1.53)0.90 (0.66–1.22)0.82 (0.53–1.26)317/480Age, site, calories, height, NSAIDs, socioeconomic status
Cohort studies
    Mills et al. (21)0.62 (0.40– 0.96)0.57 (0.35–0.93)180/1400Age
    Giovanucci et al. (23)0.91 (0.78– 1.05)0.74 (0.58–0.93)773/47,894Age, calories, family history, vasectomy, fat, retinol
    Giovanucci et al. (22)0.88 (0.74–1.05)0.77 (0.66–0.90)2481/47,365Time, ancestry, BMI, calories, vitamins
  • Note: Moderate intake corresponds to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of the distribution, while high intake corresponds to the 5th quintile. BMI, body mass index; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.