Table 5

Multivariate risk of prostate cancer according to combinations of dietary intake in 1994 and plasma levels (using quintiles of summary scores) of carotenoids by age at donation among participants without family history of prostate cancer

Lutein/zeaxanthinβ-Cryptoxanthinα-Caroteneβ-CaroteneLycopene
Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)
Age <65 years
Quintiles of dietary/plasma scoresb
 Q125/201.0026/251.0022/211.0024/171.0021/201.00
 Q226/230.63 (0.22–1.77)31/261.32 (0.46–3.82)25/261.01 (0.35–2.94)25/280.29 (0.09–0.95)29/221.33 (0.46–3.87)
 Q324/300.48 (0.18–1.26)17/220.82 (0.25–2.67)30/261.28 (0.48–3.42)25/230.55 (0.17–1.77)23/311.21 (0.42–3.49)
 Q414/200.55 (0.18–1.68)22/251.21 (0.38–3.80)24/231.11 (0.34–3.61)29/260.56 (0.19–1.63)21/260.45 (0.14–1.49)
 Q531/270.89 (0.31–2.54)24/221.63 (0.41–6.45)19/240.54 (0.20–1.47)17/260.27 (0.08–0.97)26/211.96 (0.67–5.72)
Ptrend = 0.47Ptrend = 0.78Ptrend = 0.47Ptrend = 0.15Ptrend = 0.83
Age ≥65 years
Quintiles of dietary/plasma scoresb
 Q142/321.0040/381.0044/341.0043/351.0044/311.00
 Q246/460.71 (0.33–1.51)39/340.96 (0.46–2.01)42/430.68 (0.33–1.39)42/420.77 (0.38–1.60)35/370.70 (0.31–1.56)
 Q340/420.77 (0.35–1.69)45/440.88 (0.43–1.81)43/420.86 (0.43–1.72)40/510.74 (0.37–1.45)52/490.65 (0.32–1.31)
 Q437/470.44 (0.20–1.00)37/500.63 (0.31–1.28)32/370.54 (0.25–1.20)31/450.57 (0.27–1.21)40/420.57 (0.28–1.17)
 Q537/350.68 (0.30–1.59)41/361.11 (0.52–2.38)41/460.61 (0.29–1.30)46/291.41 (0.59–3.37)31/430.40 (0.19–0.88)
Ptrend = 0.14Ptrend = 0.66Ptrend = 0.22Ptrend = 0.83Ptrend = 0.05
  • a OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; Adjusted for matching variables plus cholesterol levels (in quintiles), selenium supplementation, vitamin E supplementation, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, height, vigorous exercise, history of vasectomy and current smoking using conditional logistic regression. Ptrend is calculated using the dietary/plasma scores as continuous variable in the models.

  • b Dietary/plasma scores are calculated by summing deciles of dietary intake and plasma concentrations, i.e. a participant in decile 1 of dietary intake and decile 1 of plasma level would get a score of 1 + 1 = 2.