Table 4

Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of prostate cancer by quintiles of carotenoid plasma concentrations in the total study population and by age at time of donation after exclusion of participants with family history of prostate cancer using conditional logistic regression, Health Professionals Follow-up Study

Total study populationAge at blood donation <65 yearsAge at blood donation ≥65 years
Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)ORb (95% CI)Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)ORb (95% CI)Cases/controlsORa (95% CI)ORb (95% CI)
Lutein/zeaxanthin
 Q167/691.001.0025/251.001.0044/421.001.00
 Q274/631.281.31 (0.74–2.34)24/260.971.17 (0.37–3.67)47/391.151.26 (0.59–2.72)
 Q365/720.930.97 (0.55–1.74)24/270.910.95 (0.35–2.57)42/450.800.79 (0.34–1.85)
 Q477/601.371.57 (0.86–2.86)30/201.592.09 (0.68–6.45)47/391.091.32 (0.58–3.01)
 Q559/780.790.86 (0.48–1.53)23/280.871.07 (0.37–3.08)36/510.610.61 (0.27–1.36)
Ptrend = 0.27Ptrend = 0.54Ptrend = 0.89Ptrend = 0.84Ptrend = 0.13Ptrend = 0.20
β-Cryptoxanthin
 Q179/571.001.0029/211.001.0047/391.001.00
 Q258/790.530.55 (0.33–0.93)22/280.570.86 (0.31–2.36)39/470.710.69 (0.37–1.31)
 Q370/670.720.66 (0.38–1.16)25/260.660.64 (0.21–1.91)44/430.830.71 (0.36–1.41)
 Q468/690.710.72 (0.42–1.25)23/270.620.68 (0.22–2.05)45/410.900.88 (0.45–1.73)
 Q567/700.690.68 (0.38–1.20)27/240.801.08 (0.34–3.46)41/460.740.74 (0.36–1.52)
Ptrend = 0.39Ptrend = 0.44Ptrend = 0.82Ptrend = 0.86Ptrend = 0.55Ptrend = 0.70
α-Carotene
 Q175/611.001.0028/221.001.0045/411.001.00
 Q268/690.780.71 (0.41–1.23)23/270.640.76 (0.27–2.15)46/401.050.92 (0.45–1.87)
 Q363/740.680.65 (0.38–1.12)24/270.660.50 (0.16–1.54)41/460.820.81 (0.42–1.58)
 Q473/640.900.86 (0.48–1.54)28/221.021.11 (0.39–3.16)43/430.880.87 (0.41–1.83)
 Q563/740.680.63 (0.36–1.12)23/280.640.52 (0.18–1.52)41/460.790.74 (0.34–1.59)
Ptrend = 0.23Ptrend = 0.23Ptrend = 0.51Ptrend = 0.38Ptrend = 0.40Ptrend = 0.44
β-Carotene
 Q170/661.001.0026/241.001.0045/411.001.00
 Q276/611.181.23 (0.72–2.11)31/191.502.58 (0.77–8.63)41/450.840.87 (0.45–1.70)
 Q361/760.770.76 (0.45–1.27)25/260.821.13 (0.34–3.77)41/460.840.82 (0.44–1.56)
 Q470/670.980.97 (0.57–1.66)25/250.891.38 (0.44–4.32)44/420.971.05 (0.52–2.13)
 Q565/720.840.77 (0.43–1.36)19/320.510.42 (0.13–1.32)45/421.000.97 (0.46–2.02)
Ptrend = 0.35Ptrend = 0.20Ptrend = 0.04Ptrend = 0.03Ptrend = 0.78Ptrend = 0.85
Lycopene
 Q180/561.001.0028/221.001.0049/371.001.00
 Q267/700.630.63 (0.37–1.07)24/260.700.50 (0.17–1.44)47/390.830.75 (0.37–1.54)
 Q364/730.540.51 (0.29–0.92)23/280.630.40 (0.13–1.24)43/440.620.58 (0.27–1.27)
 Q470/670.670.66 (0.37–1.15)28/220.950.73 (0.24–2.21)38/480.510.48 (0.22–1.02)
 Q561/760.470.48 (0.26–0.89)23/280.650.66 (0.23–1.94)39/480.460.43 (0.18–1.02)
Ptrend = 0.03Ptrend = 0.06Ptrend = 0.50Ptrend = 1.00Ptrend = 0.02Ptrend = 0.03
  • a Adjusted for matching variables only using conditional logistic regression.

  • b Adjusted for matching variables plus cholesterol levels (in quintiles), selenium supplementation, vitamin E supplementation, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, height, vigorous exercise, history of vasectomy and current smoking using conditional logistic regression; 3 case-controls sets were excluded from the multivariate analysis because of missing information on at least one of the covariates. For each strata strataspecific quintiles were used.