Table 2

Baseline nutrient and food group intake by quintiles of energy-adjusted glycemic load (GL) in the Women’s Health Study

Nutrient or food groupQuintile of energy-adjusted GLPa
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Energy (kJ/day)7104 ± 23277340 ± 22687366 ± 21857267 ± 21427028 ± 2239<0.0001
Fat (g/day)69 ± 1163 ± 858 ± 854 ± 846 ± 9<0.0001
Protein (g/day)89 ± 1685 ± 1282 ± 1279 ± 1171 ± 12<0.0001
Carbohydrate (g/day)177 ± 20205 ± 12222 ± 12237 ± 13267 ± 22<0.0001
Alcohol (g/day)9 ± 145 ± 74 ± 63 ± 52 ± 4<0.0001
Fiber (g/day)16 ± 418 ± 519 ± 520 ± 622 ± 8<0.0001
Folate (μg/day)383 ± 219409 ± 212432 ± 215450 ± 221468 ± 242<0.0001
Fruits and vegetables (svgb/day)5.2 ± 2.95.8 ± 3.06.1 ± 3.16.4 ± 3.26.7 ± 3.8<0.0001
Red meat (svg/day)1.0 ± 0.70.8 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.50.6 ± 0.40.4 ± 0.4<0.0001
Whole grain (svg/day)0.99 ± 0.931.25 ± 1.031.46 ± 1.111.61 ± 1.241.75 ± 1.46<0.0001
Refined grain (svg/day)1.81 ± 1.252.18 ± 1.392.28 ± 1.412.33 ± 1.452.26 ± 1.49<0.0001
Total grain (svg/day)2.79 ± 1.583.43 ± 1.743.74 ± 1.783.95 ± 1.904.02 ± 2.04<0.0001
Cold cereal (svg/day)0.20 ± 0.280.32 ± 0.320.38 ± 0.350.44 ± 0.380.50 ± 0.56<0.0001
Dark bread (svg/day)0.51 ± 0.660.64 ± 0.760.75 ± 0.850.84 ± 0.940.90 ± 1.05<0.0001
Potatoes (svg/day)0.29 ± 0.230.32 ± 0.240.34 ± 0.240.34 ± 0.250.34 ± 0.33<0.0001
Soft drinks (svg/day)0.06 ± 0.190.09 ± 0.250.11 ± 0.300.16 ± 0.410.32 ± 0.80<0.0001
  • a P for a test for linear trend.

  • b svg, serving(s).