Table 1

Characteristics of the cohort studies included in the pooled analysis of dietary energy-adjusted carotenoids and lung cancer

StudyFollow-up periodBaseline cohort sizeNumber of casesMean (sd) μg/day
α-caroteneβ-caroteneβ-cryptoxanthinLutein/ZeaxanthinLycopene
α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study
 Men1985–19966771a298527 (505)1758 (1262)25 (30)1146 (328)645 (597)
Canadian National Breast Screening Study
 Women1980–199356837149986 (818)4619 (2939)79 (58)3037 (3096)8891 (8933)
Health Professionals Follow-up Study
 Men1986–199644350244980 (1036)5159 (3591)88 (103)3949 (3013)10844 (7795)
Iowa Women’s Health Study
 Women1986–199633828433773 (820)4527 (3147)74 (71)2795 (2832)4180 (4267)
Netherlands Cohort Study
 Women62412131685 (565)2901 (1501)206 (172)2448 (1028)1303 (1883)
 Men1986–199258279843687 (527)2960 (1453)155 (164)2550 (1120)1045 (1544)
New York State Cohort
 Women210451301144 (854)6346 (3384)247 (264)5998 (3790)5683 (4100)
 Men1980–1987279363921171 (865)6382 (3458)215 (273)6025 (3489)7274 (4764)
Nurses’ Health Study (a)
 Women1980–198688307156723 (838)4424 (3629)104 (92)5086 (5289)5255 (5305)
Nurses’ Health Study (b)
 Women1986–199668307b379764 (637)4273 (2403)62 (62)3531 (2553)9643 (6133)
Total number3997653155
  • a Only the placebo group of the α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study is included in the lung cancer analyses.

  • b These participants were also included in the Nurses’ Health Study (a).