Table 3

Univariable Analyses of Protective Behaviors

VariableProtective behaviorspc
NothingSelf-careaConventional carea
n (%)bn (%)bn (%)b
Study<0.001
  Study 143 (22)49 (25)105 (53)
  Study 220 (13)19 (12)117 (75)
Demographic characteristics
 Age (yrs)0.014
  40–4921 (23)26 (29)43 (48)
  50–5927 (15)30 (16)126 (69)
  60–6915 (19)12 (15)53 (66)
 Race/ethnicity<0.001
  Nonwhite48 (20)57 (24)131 (56)
  White15 (13)11 (9)91 (78)
 Education (yrs)<0.001
  ≤1242 (25)37 (22)90 (53)
  >1221 (11)31 (17)132 (72)
 Marital status0.211
  Not married23 (21)26 (23)63 (56)
  Married40 (17)42 (17)159 (66)
 Place of birth0.472
  Philadelphia37 (19)39 (21)114 (60)
  Outside of Philadelphia26 (16)29 (18)108 (66)
 Family history of prostate cancer0.892
  No58 (18)61 (19)201 (63)
  Yes5 (15)7 (21)21 (64)
Baseline survey mode0.012
 Telephone51 (22)39 (16)147 (62)
 Mail12 (10)29 (25)75 (65)
Cognitive, affective, and social behaviors
 Salience and coherenced0.038
 Worry and concernd0.457
 Susceptibilityd0.577
 Intentiond0.401
 Self-efficacyd0.382
 Curabilityd0.637
 Social support from doctor and familyd0.282
 Social influence from doctor and familyd0.271
 Knowledged0.183
  • a “Self-care” includes men with self-care only. “Conventional care” includes men with conventional care with or without self-care.

  • b Percentages indicate the proportion of each type of protective behavior at each level of a variable.

  • c p-values test the difference of protective behaviors across levels of a variable.

  • d All items and scales used as continuous (scored from 1 to 4). Scoring for the Worry and Concern scale was reverse-coded. Thus, a higher scale score reflects lower worry and concern.