Table 2

Participant characteristics

VariableStudy 1aStudy 2apc
Mean ± SDn (%)bMean ± SDn (%)b
Demographic characteristics
 Age (yrs)52 ± 757 ± 5
  40–4990 (46)
  50–5970 (36)113 (72)
  60–6937 (19)43 (28)
 Race/ethnicity
  Nonwhite197 (100)39 (25)
  White117 (75)
 Education (in yrs)d<0.001
  <1248 (24)12 (8)
  1271 (36)38 (24)
  >1278 (40)106 (68)
 Marital status0.107
  Not married70 (36)42 (27)
  Married127 (64)114 (73)
 Place of birthe<0.001
  Philadelphia119 (60)71 (46)
  Outside of Philadelphia, in US65 (33)77 (49)
  Outside of US13 (7)8 (5)
 Family history of prostate cancer0.713
  No180 (91)140 (90)
  Yes17 (9)16 (10)
Baseline survey mode<0.001
  Telephone167 (85)70 (45)
  Mail30 (15)86 (55)
Cognitive, affective, and social factors
 Salience and coherence (8 items)f3.7 ± 0.53.7 ± 0.3
 Worry and concern (7 items)f3.2 ± 0.53.4 ± 0.5<0.001
 Susceptibility (3 items)f1.7 ± 0.71.8 ± 0.70.034
 Intention (4 items)f3.4 ± 0.83.1 ± 0.90.007
 Self-efficacyf3.3 ± 1.03.6 ± 0.70.007
 Curabilityf3.7 ± 0.63.7 ± 0.60.304
 Social support form doctorf3.3 ± 1.03.7 ± 0.7<0.001
 Social support from familyf3.3 ± 1.03.4 ± 0.90.331
 Social influence from doctorf3.7 ± 0.73.6 ± 0.70.436
 Social influence from familyf2.9 ± 1.22.7 ± 1.20.044
 Knowledgef2.8 ± 1.13.3 ± 0.80.002
  • a Study 1, three community-based primary care practices; Study 2, one university-based primary care practice.

  • b Percentages may not add to 100 because of rounding.

  • c p-values test the difference between Study 1 and Study 2 with respect to each variable. p-value is not reported for age or race/ethnicity because differences across the two studies are due to design.

  • d Education was dichotomized as “less than or equal to 12 years” versus “more than 12 years” in the final analyses.

  • e Place of birth was dichotomized as “Philadelphia” versus “Outside of Philadelphia” in the final analyses. US, United States.

  • f All items and scales used as continuous (scored from 1 to 4). Scoring for the worry and concern scale was reverse-coded. Thus, a higher scale score reflects lower worry and concern.