Table 1.

Selected characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

AuthorYearPatient populationNo. in intervention (control)Duration in minutes (in person)Type of providerAssessAssistArrangeQuit rate assessed*Difference in proportion that quit
Buchanan2002Pregnant women20 (28)Not givenTeamYesYesYesAt delivery0.221
Demers1990Primary care238 (178)4PhysicianNoYesYes6 mo0.036
Gebauer1998Pregnant women84 (94)15NurseNoYesYes6-12 wk0.155
Gielen1997Pregnant women193 (198)30NurseNoYesYes3rd trimester0.007
Glasgow2000Primary care578 (576)23PhysicianYesYesYes6 mo0.034
Goldberg1994Primary care69 (118)Not givenPhysicianYesYesYes6 mo−0.016
Greene1994Primary care26 (28)32DentistYesYesNo3 mo0.192
Griebel1998Oncology14 (14)20NurseYesYesYes6 wk0.071
Gritz1993Oncology50 (46)Not givenTeamYesYesYes12 mo−0.008
Groner§2000Primary care164 (162)13NurseYesYesYes6 mo−0.001
arm 2Primary care153 (162)13NurseYesYesYes6 mo−0.017
Hartmann1996Pregnant women107 (100)Not givenPhysicianNoYesYesEnd of prenatal care0.096
Hatsukami1996Primary care55 (54)420NurseYesYesYes6 mo0.158
arm 2Primary care50 (54)420NurseYesYesYes6 mo−0.035
arm 3Primary care51 (54)Not givenNurseYesYesYes6 mo−0.119
Hollis1993Primary care633 (708)Not givenTeamNoYesYes12 mo0.036
arm 2Primary care675 (708)Not givenTeamNoYesYes12 mo0.033
arm 3Primary care675 (708)Not givenTeamNoYesYes12 mo0.024
Hurt1994Primary care101 (95)Not givenTeamNoYesYes12 mo0.148
Katz2002Primary care130 (64)75NurseNoYesYes6 mo0.083
Kendrick1995Pregnant women233 (284)3NurseYesYesNo8th month of pregnancy−0.010
arm 2Pregnant women348 (347)3TeamYesYesNo8th month of pregnancy−0.006
Kihm1999Oncology14 (11)Not givenNurseYesYesYes6 mo0.169
Lando#2001Pregnant women2055 (1028)Not givenTeamYesYesYesIn pregnancy (sustained)0.100
Lewis1998Hospitalized62 (61)2.5PhysicianYesYesYes6 mo0.048
arm 2Hospitalized62 (61)2.5PhysicianYesYesYes6 mo0.015
Masouredis1997Primary care171 (189)20DentistYesYesYes3 mo0.081
Morgan1996Primary care279 (380)Not givenPhysicianYesYesYes6 mo0.073**
Ockene1991Primary care230 (227)11PhysicianYesYesYes6 mo0.042
arm 2Primary care117 (227)7.5PhysicianYesYesYes6 mo0.075
Rice1994CVD*63 (48)300NurseYesYesNo12 mo−0.190
arm 2CVD*82 (48)300NurseYesYesNo12 mo−0.187
arm 3CVD*62 (48)Not givenNurseYesYesNo12 mo−0.285
Schnoll2003Oncology208 (210)5PhysicianYesYesYes6 mo0.025
Secker-Walker1994Pregnant women188 (226)Not givenTeamNoYesYes36th week visit0.039
Secker-Walker1998Pregnant women44 (48)Not givenPhysicianNoYesYes36th week visit0.002
Secker-Walker1998Pregnant women114 (110)Not givenTeamNoYesYes1 y Postpartum0.075
Severson1998Primary care1374 (1350)Not givenDentistYesYesYes3 mo0.009
arm 2Primary care394 (239)Not givenDentistYesYesYes3 mo0.090
arm 3Primary care1305 (1350)Not givenDentistYesYesNo3 mo0.004
Severson††1997Primary care1073 (802)Not givenPhysicianNoYesYes12 mo0.008
Sippel1999Primary care103 (102)17.5PhysicianYesYesYes9 mo (sustained)−0.050
Stanislaw1993Oncology12 (14)75NurseYesYesYes5 wk0.321
Stevens1995Primary care541 (632)10DentistYesYesYes12 mo0.006
Tashkin2001COPD*204 (200)Not givenTeamYesYesYes26 wk0.070
Taylor‡‡1990Post-MI*72 (58)Not givenNurseYesYesYes12 mo0.260**
Taylor1996Hospitalized315 (313)60TeamYesYesYes6 mo0.141
Wewers2000HIV+*8 (7)Not givenTeamYesYesYes8 mo0.500
Wewers1994CVD*10 (12)75NurseYesYesYes6 wk0.317
arm 2General surgery13 (15)75NurseYesYesYes6 wk−0.056
arm 3Oncology14 (16)75NurseYesYesYes6 wk0.143
  • * Some studies assessed quit rates at multiple dates. This table notes the date of quit rates used in the metaregression.

  • P < 0.001.

  • P < 0.05.

  • § Pediatric setting; one arm focused on the effect of maternal smoking on child health.

  • Primarily nurses but some medical assistants.

  • Colorado and Missouri only. The Maryland site was not used because the type of medical provider was not clear.

  • # STORK program only.

  • ** P < 0.01.

  • †† Pediatric setting.

  • ‡‡ Rate includes all subjects; those lost to follow-up were assumed to be smokers.