Table 3.

Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for the association between nonadherence to mammography screening guidelines and perceived susceptibility to breast cancer in the total sample (N = 1,229), Connecticut, 1996-2000

Covariates included in each modelPerceived lifetime susceptibility to breast cancerOR (95% CI)
Primary covariates (sociodemographic factors,* access to care, and mammography-related factors)Very likely2.86 (1.53-5.35)
Somewhat likely1.00 (reference)
A little likely1.64 (1.20-2.23)
Not likely1.51 (1.08-2.12)
Don't know1.54 (0.89-2.66)
Primary covariates*,†, + all additional covariates (breast cancer risk factors,§ health status and behaviors, practical barriers, features of the index screening,** and psychosocial variables††)Very likely2.82 (1.45-5.48)
Somewhat likely1.00 (reference)
A little likely1.63 (1.18-2.26)
Not likely1.52 (1.05-2.19)
Don't know1.51 (0.82-2.78)
Primary covariates*, + subset of additional covariates‡,‡Very likely2.83 (1.51-5.30)
Somewhat likely1.00 (reference)
A little likely1.64 (1.20-2.23)
Not likely1.51 (1.07-2.12)
Don't know1.52 (0.87-2.64)
  • * Age, race, marital status, education, income, and household size.

  • Mammography insurance, usual health care provider.

  • Knowledge of screening guidelines, received a recommendation from a health care provider to obtain a mammogram, family breast cancer history, and history of adherence to screening guidelines.

  • § Age at menarche, nulliparity/age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, height, and body mass index.

  • Self-rated health, alcohol consumption, pack-years of smoking, regular exercise, use of vitamin supplements, and attendance at religious services.

  • Travel time to index screening appointment, needed to make special arrangements to attend index screening, and time off from work to attend index screening.

  • ** Index screening hospital, van versus hospital clinic, how long to receive index screening results, index examination was first screening ever obtained, and result of index screening.

  • †† Usefulness of mammograms for detecting breast abnormalities; pain, embarrassment, and anxiety experienced during the index screening; worry over the result of the index screening; effect of index screening on breast cancer worry; confidence in one's ability to obtain a future screening; perceived control over remaining healthy, developing cancer, and recovering from cancer; and received a reminder notice to obtain a mammogram.

  • ‡‡ Menopausal status, self-rated health, pack-years of smoking, and pain experienced at index screening compared to expectations.