Table 5.

Adjusted*ORs (95% CI) for gastric cancer associated with serum micronutrient levels stratified by the status of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, Shanghai Cohort Study, 1986-1998

MicronutrientsQuartile
P for trend
FirstSecondThirdFourth
α-Carotene
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.000.49 (0.18-1.39)1.19 (0.50-2.84)0.43 (0.15-1.22)0.35
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.001.24 (0.60-2.31)0.84 (0.42-1.67)0.98 (0.46-2.09)0.62
β-Carotene
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.000.68 (0.30-1.55)0.53 (0.24-1.21)0.31 (0.13-0.75)0.008
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.000.93 (0.54-1.59)0.77 (0.43-1.38)0.99 (0.55-1.76)0.76
β-Cryptoxanthin
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.000.58 (0.23-1.47)0.56 (0.22-1.42)0.46 (0.18-1.14)0.13
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.001.16 (0.65-2.04)0.87 (0.47-1.62)1.35 (0.73-2.50)0.54
Lycopene
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.000.66 (0.27-1.59)0.46 (0.18-1.14)0.59 (0.23-1.51)0.22
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.001.27 (0.72-2.26)1.34 (0.74-2.42)0.86 (0.44-1.66)0.82
Lutein/zeaxanthin
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.001.14 (0.49-2.66)0.67 (0.27-1.62)0.85 (0.37-1.93)0.45
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.001.31 (0.75-2.31)1.21 (0.68-2.17)1.34 (0.75-2.41)0.39
Retinol
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.001.06 (0.50-2.27)0.80 (0.34-1.84)0.47 (0.19-1.18)0.09
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.000.94 (0.53-1.68)0.80 (0.44-1.45)1.02 (0.57-1.82)0.94
Vitamin C
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.000.69 (0.28-1.70)0.36 (0.14-0.94)0.39 (0.15-0.98)0.02
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.001.31 (0.76-2.24)1.26 (0.71-2.24)1.22 (0.66-2.27)0.50
α-Tocopherol
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.001.15 (0.47-2.83)1.48 (0.60-3.64)1.36 (0.57-3.24)0.42
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.000.82 (0.45-1.49)0.87 (0.49-1.55)1.07 (0.60-1.89)0.77
γ-Tocopherol
    Nonsmokers and <3 drinks per day1.001.39 (0.53-3.63)1.59 (0.66-3.84)1.26 (0.50-3.20)0.60
    Ever smokers or ≥3 drinks per day§1.001.00 (0.57-1.76)0.87 (0.47-1.59)1.18 (0.67-2.06)0.67
  • * All ORs were adjusted for age, year of biospecimen collection, neighborhood of residence at recruitment, batch of assays for serum micronutrients, positivity of urinary epigallocatechin (no or yes), and seropositivity of H. pylori antibodies (no or yes).

  • See Appendix 1 for quartile cut points.

  • Including 56 gastric cancer patients and 227 control subjects who neither smoked cigarettes over lifetime nor consumed ≥3 drinks of alcohol per day.

  • § Including 135 gastric cancer patients and 343 control subjects who either smoked cigarettes or consumed at least 3 drinks of alcohol per day. ORs were further adjusted for cigarette smoking (never or ever) and alcohol consumption (<3 or ≥3 drinks per day).