Table 4

Summary of PAHa exposures and protein adducts in occupational studies

Source of exposureSubjects (n)Measurement (method)ResultsReference
Iron foundryExposed (45)PAH-AlbControls vs. exposedSherson et al. (19)
Controls (45)(ELISA)P = 0.05 (smokers)
P = 0.005 (nonsmokers)
Iron foundry and roofersExposed (37)PAH-AlbControls vs. exposedLee et al. (21)
Controls (37)(ELISA) 0.05 < P < 0.10
Steel foundry and graphite electrode productionExposed (206)B(a)PDE-Hbr = 0.26; P = 0.0002 (with PAH levels in air)Ferreira et al. (22)
(HPLC-fluorescence)
Iron foundryExposed (70)PAH-AlbControls vs. exposedOmland et al. (18)
Controls (68)(ELISA)P = 0.65 (smokers)
P = 0.20 (nonsmokers)
Steel foundry and graphite electrode productionExposed (127)B(a)PDE-Albr = 0.35; P = 0.0001 (with PAH in air)Tas et al. (20)
Controls (133)(HPLC-fluorescence)
Steel industryExposed (28)1,2-NPQ-Albr = 0.496; P = 0.0003 (with exposure category)Present study
Controls (22)(GC-MS)
  • a PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PAH-Alb, albumin adducts of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; B(a)PDE-Hb, hemoglobin adducts of benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; B(a)PDE-Alb, albumin adducts of benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide; 1,2-NPQ-Alb, albumin adducts of 1,2-naphthoquinone; GC-MS, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.