Table 3.

Multivariate-adjusted HR of categories of nut and seed intake and risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers

HR and 95% CI for category of nut and seed intake*
P for trendContinuous (Log)Continuous (Log) with folate adjusted§
1 (Reference)2345
CRC
    Energy-adjusted model
        All subjects1.000.95 (0.77-1.18)0.98 (0.83-1.16)0.93 (0.77-1.12)0.89 (0.73-1.08)0.230.97 (0.91-1.03)0.98 (0.92-1.05)
        Men1.001.10 (0.79-1.55)1.02 (0.78-1.32)1.12 (0.83-1.51)1.06 (0.78-1.43)0.601.04 (0.94-1.14)1.06 (0.95-1.18)
        Women1.000.87 (0.65-1.15)0.95 (0.77-1.18)0.83 (0.65-1.05)0.79 (0.61-1.01)0.040.92 (0.84-0.99)0.93 (0.84-1.02)
    Fully adjusted model
        All subjects1.000.95 (0.76-1.18)0.99 (0.84-1.17)0.94 (0.78-1.14)0.91 (0.75-1.11)0.390.98 (0.92-1.05)0.99 (0.92-1.07)
        Men1.001.10 (0.78-1.54)1.03 (0.79-1.34)1.13 (0.84-1.53)1.09 (0.81-1.49)0.421.06 (0.95-1.17)1.07 0.96-1.19)
        Women1.000.87 (0.64-1.15)0.96 (0.77-1.20)0.84 (0.67-1.07)0.81 (0.63-1.04)0.070.93 (0.85-1.01)0.94 (0.85-1.03)
Colon cancer
    Energy-adjusted model
        All subjects1.001.04 (0.80-1.36)1.07 (0.87-1.32)1.01 (0.80-1.27)0.80 (0.62-1.02)0.180.94 (0.87-1.03)0.93 (0.85-1.02)
        Men1.001.09 (0.70-1.67)1.17 (0.84-1.62)1.17 (0.80-1.72)1.00 (0.67-1.50)0.631.04 (0.92-1.18)1.03 (0.90-1.18)
        Women1.001.01 (0.72-1.41)1.00 (0.77-1.31)0.91 (0.69-1.21)0.68 (0.50-0.93)0.030.88 (0.79-0.97)0.86 (0.76-0.96)
    Fully adjusted model
        All subjects1.001.03 (0.79-1.35)1.07 (0.87-1.32)1.01 (0.80-1.27)0.81 (0.63-1.04)0.280.96 (0.88-1.04)0.94 (0.86-1.03)
        Men1.001.09 (0.70-1.69)1.17 (0.84-1.63)1.17 (0.80-1.73)1.01 (0.67-1.53)0.501.06 (0.93-1.21)1.05 (0.91-1.20)
        Women1.001.01 (0.72-1.41)1.01 (0.77-1.32)0.92 (0.70-1.23)0.69 (0.50-0.95)0.040.89 (0.80-0.98)0.87 (0.77-0.98)
Proximal colon cancer
    Energy-adjusted model
        All subjects1.001.23 (0.80-1.88)1.36 (1.00-1.87)1.22 (0.86-1.73)0.79 (0.52-1.18)0.740.95 (0.84-1.08)0.94 (0.82-1.08)
        Men1.000.96 (0.44-2.07)1.58 (0.96-2.59)1.13 (0.61-2.11)0.78 (0.39-1.56)0.960.96 (0.78-1.19)0.96 (0.77-1.19)
        Women1.001.39 (0.83-2.33)1.24 (0.82-1.85)1.24 (0.81-1.90)0.76 (0.46-1.26)0.590.93 (0.791.09)0.92 (0.77-1.10)
    Fully adjusted model
        All subjects1.001.21 (0.79-1.86)1.35 (0.99-1.86)1.22 (0.86-1.73)0.80 (0.53-1.21)0.870.96 (0.85-1.10)0.95 (0.82-1.10)
        Men1.000.95 (0.44-2.06)1.55 (0.94-2.56)1.11 (0.60-2.08)0.77 (0.38-1.56)0.910.97 (0.78-1.20)0.96 (0.77-1.20)
        Women1.001.38 (0.83-2.31)1.24 (0.82-1.86)1.26 (0.82-1.93)0.80 (0.48-1.33)0.730.95 (0.81-1.12)0.93 (0.78-1.12)
Distal colon cancer
    Energy-adjusted model
        All subjects1.000.88 (0.59-1.30)0.94 (0.69-1.27)0.90 (0.64-1.26)0.71 (0.49-1.03)0.130.93 (0.82-1.05)0.91 (0.80-1.05)
        Men1.001.09 (0.58-2.05)0.99 (0.62-1.60)1.01 (0.57-1.79)1.05 (0.59-1.87)0.871.08 (0.90-1.30)1.09 (0.89-1.33)
        Women1.000.74 (0.44-1.24)0.88 (0.60-1.30)0.81 (0.53-1.24)0.53 (0.33-0.87)0.030.82 (0.70-0.97)0.79 (0.66-0.95)
    Fully adjusted model
        All subjects1.000.88 (0.60-1.31)0.94 (0.70-1.28)0.91 (0.65-1.28)0.70 (0.48-1.02)0.170.94 (0.83-1.06)0.92 (0.81-1.06)
        Men1.001.11 (0.59-2.10)1.01 (0.63-1.64)1.04 (0.58-1.85)1.07 (0.60-1.92)0.691.11 (0.92-1.34)1.11 (0.90-1.36)
        Women1.000.74 (0.44-1.24)0.88 (0.59-1.30)0.82 (0.54-1.25)0.52 (0.32-0.85)0.030.83 (0.70-0.97)0.80 (0.67-0.96)
Rectal cancer
    Energy-adjusted model
        All subjects1.000.81 (0.59-1.18)0.84 (0.63-1.11)0.81 (0.59-1.11)1.04 (0.77-1.42)0.831.01 (0.91-1.12)1.07 (0.96-1.20)
        Men1.001.13 (0.67-1.93)0.81 (0.52-1.25)1.06 (0.66-1.68)1.17 (0.71-1.77)0.801.03 (0.88-1.20)1.10 (0.93-1.30)
        Women1.000.60 (0.35-1.02)0.86 (0.59-1.25)0.67 (0.43-1.04)1.01 (0.67-1.52)0.701.00 (0.87-1.16)1.06 (0.91-1.24)
    Fully adjusted model
        All subjects1.000.82 (0.56-1.18)0.86 (0.65-1.14)0.83 (0.61-1.15)1.10 (0.81-1.50)0.951.03 (0.92-1.14)1.08 (0.97-1.21)
        Men1.001.13 (0.67-1.92)0.82 (0.53-1.27)1.08 (0.68-1.72)1.20 (0.75-1.90)0.631.05 (0.90-1.23)1.11 (0.94-1.31)
        Women1.000.61 (0.36-1.03)0.88 (0.61-1.28)0.69 (0.44-1.07)1.05 (0.70-1.58)0.991.01 (0.88-1.17)1.07 (0.92-1.25)
  • * Values are HRs derived from models as described above, with all covariates presented as categorical variables. Non–sex-specific category cut points were defined across the entire cohort: category 1 (reference): 0.0 g/d, category 2: 0.0-0.8 g/d, category 3: >0.8-2.3 g/d, category 4: >2.3-6.2 g/d, and category 5: >6.2 g/d.

  • P of χ2 test for trend using a continuous variable with 1 df.

  • Values are HRs derived from models as described above, with all covariates presented as log-transformed continuous variables, except height, weight, physical activity, and duration of smoking (categorical).

  • § Values are HRs derived from models as described above with further adjustments for intake of folate, with all covariates presented as log-transformed variables, except height, weight, physical activity, and duration of smoking (categorical), from a large subset of EPIC subjects (men: cases n = 496, noncases n = 119,876; women: cases n = 686, noncases n = 292,209).

  • Energy-adjusted model: stratified by center with age as the primary time variable and adjusted for age, gender, energy from alcohol, energy from fat, and energy from carbohydrates and proteins.

  • Fully adjusted model: stratified by center with age as the primary time variable and adjusted for all the same variables as the energy-adjusted model plus adjustments for height, weight, intake of fruits (without nuts and seeds), intake of dietary fiber, physical activity, and duration of smoking.