Table 2.

Description of the study population

Whole cohortCategory of nut and seed intake*
1 (Reference; nonconsumers)2 (>0-2.8 g/d)3 (>0.8-2.3 g/d)4 (>2.3-6.2 g/d)5 (>6.2 g/d)
Dietary variables
    Nuts and seeds (g/d)
        All subjects4.2 ± 8.80.00.3 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.64.0 ± 1.016.7 ± 14.6
        Men4.6 ± 10.40.00.3 ± 0.21.3 ± 0.54.1 ± 1.019.1 ± 17.6
        Women4.1 ± 8.10.00.3 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.64.0 ± 1.015.7 ± 13.0
    Total energy (MJ)†,
        All subjects8.8 ± 2.78.5 ± 2.78.5 ± 2.79.0 ± 2.68.7 ± 2.59.6 ± 2.7
        Men10.3 ± 2.910.4 ± 2.99.7 ± 2.910.4 ± 2.710.3 ± 2.810.9 ± 3.0
        Women8.2 ± 2.37.8 ± 2.27.8 ± 2.38.3 ± 2.28.2 ± 2.29.0 ± 2.4
    Fruits (g/d)†,§
        All subjects244.1 ± 196.4231.3 ± 186.9264.7 ± 211.0216.9 ± 168.2258.1 ± 206.7255.5 ± 206.1
        Men222.4 ± 207.5214.0 ± 196.5236.1 ± 214.8171.6 ± 150.4257.9 ± 237.0247.2 ± 230.5
        Women253.3 ± 190.8237.9 ± 182.6279.8 ± 207.5239.3 ± 172.0258.1 ± 196.1259.1 ± 194.7
    Dietary fiber intake (g/d)
        All subjects22.4 ± 8.021.8 ± 8.021.5 ± 8.821.3 ± 7.322.7 ± 7.425.2 ± 8.0
        Men23.9 ± 9.223.8 ± 9.223.1 ± 10.321.6 ± 7.724.2 ± 8.427.1 ± 9.0
        Women21.8 ± 7.421.1 ± 7.320.6 ± 7.821.1 ± 7.122.2 ± 7.024.3 ± 7.4
Nondietary variables
    Colon cancer cases (n)
        All subjects855299148181124103
        Men32711659754037
        Women528183891068466
    Rectal cancer cases (n)
        All subjects47417569905981
        Men2157640382833
        Women2599929523148
    Subjects (n)
        All subjects478,040119,89087,12092,53288,96389,535
        Men141,98833,27630,17130,53621,32426,681
        Women336,05286,61456,94961,99667,63962,854
    Age (y)
        All subjects51.2 ± 9.954.0 ± 8.449.5 ± 10.952.6 ± 9.249.9 ± 9.849.0 ± 10.4
        Men52.2 ± 10.156.0 ± 8.449.7 ± 10.654.0 ± 8.351.2 ± 10.548.9 ± 11.2
        Women50.8 ± 9.853.2 ± 8.349.3 ± 11.151.9 ± 9.549.5 ± 9.649.0 ± 10.1
    Height (cm)
        All subjects166.0 ± 9.0164.9 ± 8.5165.9 ± 9.5167.1 ± 9.1165.6 ± 8.7166.9 ± 9.1
        Men174.8 ± 7.4173.1 ± 7.2174.7 ± 7.5176.0 ± 6.8174.8 ± 7.6175.7 ± 7.7
        Women162.3 ± 6.8161.8 ± 6.8161.2 ± 6.9162.7 ± 6.5162.8 ± 6.8163.2 ± 6.8
    Weight (kg)
        All subjects70.6 ± 13.770.9 ± 13.771.3 ± 13.571.4 ± 14.169.5 ± 13.569.8 ± 13.5
        Men81.3 ± 12.081.4 ± 12.080.4 ± 11.782.1 ± 12.181.7 ± 12.080.9 ± 12.0
        Women66.1 ± 11.866.9 ± 12.166.4 ± 11.966.1 ± 11.865.6 ± 11.665.1 ± 11.2
  • NOTE: Average no. years of follow-up: category 1: all subjects n = 5.1, men n = 5.5, women n = 4.9; category 2: all subjects n = 5.1, men n = 5.3, women n = 5.1; category 3: all subjects n = 4.4, men n = 4.0, women n = 4.6; category 4: all subjects n = 4.5, men n = 4.3, women n = 4.5; and category 5: all subjects n = 4.7, men n = 4.4, women n = 4.9. Average no. proximal colon cancer cases (not including overlapping or unspecified tumors): category 1: all subjects n = 117, men n = 46, women n = 71; category 2: all subjects n = 57, men n = 18, women n = 39; category 3: all subjects n = 84, men n = 36, women n = 48; category 4: all subjects n = 55, men n = 15, women n = 40; and category 5: all subjects n = 38, men n = 12, women n = 26. Average no. distal colon cancer cases (not including overlapping or unspecified tumors): category 1: all subjects n = 175, men n = 76, women n = 99; category 2: all subjects n = 69, men n = 40, women n = 29; category 3: all subjects n = 90, men n = 38, women n = 52; category 4: all subjects n = 59, men n = 28, women n = 31; and category 5: all subjects n = 81, men n = 33, women n = 48.

  • * Non–sex-specific category cut points were defined across the entire cohort.

  • Values are means ± SD and are not adjusted by any variable.

  • In men, 35.5% of total energy are from fats, 58.5% from carbohydrates and proteins, and 5.9% from alcohol. In women, 35.9% of total energy are from fats, 61.3% from carbohydrates and proteins, and 2.8% from alcohol.

  • § Not including intake of nuts and seeds.