Table 1.

Listing of items for nuts and seeds from the list of items in the EPIC baseline dietary questionnaires, percentage of nut and seed consumers, average daily intake from both diet questionnaire and 24-hour recalls by country, HR and 95% CI for association of nuts and seeds for men and women combined, by country, and contribution of each country to the entire EPIC cohort and CRC cases

EPIC country and/or study centerQuestionnaire food item concerning intake of nuts and/or seedsPercentage of consumers*Mean intake (g/d)
24-hour recall mean intake (g/d)
HR of nut and seed intake§Total person yearsCRC cases (n)
MalesFemalesMalesFemales
DenmarkPeanuts74.22.0 ± 4.41.5 ± 3.71.4 ± 9.21.2 ± 8.11.21 (0.97-1.51)182,176177
FranceNuts, nonspecific71.75.5 ± 8.43.6 ± 15.60.85 (0.72-1.00)437,420174
GermanyNuts, nonspecific; seeds, nonspecific; peanut butter91.36.3 ± 11.05.2 ± 9.02.5 ± 11.62.7 ± 12.00.97 (0.78-1.17)209,262114
GreeceNuts, nonspecific, with salt; nuts, nonspecific, without salt92.97.2 ± 9.44.9 ± 7.33.5 ± 15.93.2 ± 14.30.98 (0.64-1.50)92,66124
Italy89.00.9 ± 1.80.9 ± 2.13.0 ± 16.53.4 ± 18.10.92 (0.61-1.39)186,919101
Italy North (Florence, Turin, and Varese)Walnuts; hazelnuts; almonds; peanuts
RagusaNuts, nonspecific
NaplesWalnut
NorwayPeanuts47.22.2 ± 3.62.8 ± 12.70.90 (0.52-1.55)57,42320
NetherlandsNuts, nonspecific, eaten at dinner; peanut butter; peanuts, cocktail nuts, and other nuts94.112.4 ± 16.67.5 ± 10.610.0 ± 26.75.5 ± 15.90.87 (0.72-1.11)161,19497
SpainAlmond; chestnut; coconut; hazelnut; other nuts, nonspecific; peanut; pine nut; pistachio nut; seed, sunflower/pumpkin; walnut38.05.0 ± 13.03.9 ± 9.76.8 ± 24.94.4 ± 15.10.98 (0.81-1.18)236,108110
Sweden62.61.1 ± 3.70.8 ± 3.11.0 ± 6.91.0 ± 6.00.89 (0.72-1.10)368,594272
MalmöAlmonds; cashew nuts; chestnuts, roasted; hazelnuts; nuts/almonds; peanut butter; peanuts; peanuts, roasted salted; pecan nuts; pistachio nuts; pumpkin kernels; pumpkin/squash seeds, dried; walnuts
UmeåPeanuts, salted
United KingdomPeanut butter, peanuts, or other nuts84.66.7 ± 13.85.6 ± 10.65.5 ± 20.44.6 ± 15.61.10 (0.97-1.26)351,401240
  • * Defined as those with nut and seed intakes >0 from diet questionnaire.

  • Unadjusted means ± SD from EPIC diet questionnaires, including nonconsumers.

  • Unadjusted means ± SD from EPIC 24-hour recalls in 38,000 EPIC subjects, including nonconsumers.

  • § HR and 95% CI for association of nut and seed intake with CRC risk for men and women combined, by country, with intake presented as a log-transformed continuous variable, using a model stratified by center with age as the primary time variable and adjusted for age, gender, height (categorical), weight (categorical), energy from alcohol (log-transformed continuous), energy from fat (log-transformed continuous), energy from carbohydrates and proteins (log-transformed continuous), fruit intake (without nuts and seeds; log-transformed), dietary fiber intake (log-transformed), physical activity (categorical), and smoking duration (categorical).

  • “Nonspecific” implies intake of any kind of nuts.