Table 5

RRs for prostate cancer according to toenail selenium levels in subgroups of localized (T0–2, M0) and advanced (T3–4, M0; T0–4, M1) prostate tumors, NLCS 1986–1992

Quintile of toenail selenium (boundaries in μg/g)Localized tumors (n = 189)Advanced tumors (n = 183)
RRa (95% CI)RRa (95% CI)
1 (≤0.467)1.00b1.00b
2 (0.467–≤0.514)1.29 (0.79–2.10)0.81 (0.50–1.33)
3 (0.514–≤0.560)0.79 (0.46–1.35)0.59 (0.35–1.00)
4 (0.560–≤0.616)0.74 (0.42–1.33)0.48 (0.27–0.86)
5 (>0.616)0.72 (0.42–1.24)0.62 (0.37–1.05)
P for linear trend0.0430.020
  • a Adjusted for age (years), family history of prostate cancer (no/yes), number of cigarettes/day, years of cigarette smoking, level of education (low, medium, high).

  • b Reference category.