Table 1.

Design features of case-control and cohort studies that examine hormone receptors and breast cancer epidemiology

First author (reference)Publication yearCountry (study)Study population
Hormone receptor analysis
% Positive
Age (y)*% Postmenopausal% Invasive casesCases with tissue analysis (%)Method(s) of detectionCriteria for positivityER+PR+ER+/PR+
Prospective studies
    Colditz (12)2004United States (NHS)30-55 (BL)NS1002,096 (74)DCC, IHCNS766561
    Chlebowski (RCT; ref. 13)2003United States (WHI)50-79100100309 (89)MRNS87
    Palmer (14)2002United States (DES)25medNS7541 (71)MRNS83
    Sellers (15, 16)2002United States (IWHS)55-69 (BL)100881,355 (72)MR(+) or borderline (+)8273
    Potter (17), Tutera (18) Gapstur (19)1995United States (IWHS)55-69 (BL)10094610 (65)MR(+) or borderline (+)68
    London (20)1989United States (NHS)30-55 (BL)NSNS890 (61)MRNS65
Retrospective cohort studies
    Manjer (21)2001Sweden57m60 (BL)100267 (90)IHCNS704539
    Wohlfahrt (22)1999Denmark (DBCG)45mNS1006,044 (56)IHC≥10 fmol/mg or ≥10%68
Population-based case-control studies
    McCredie (23)2004Melbourne (Australia)<400100618 (81)DCC, IHCNS586553
    Cotterchio (24)2003Canada (ON)25-74681003,276 (87)DCC, IHCDCC:≥10 fmol/mg56
    Li (25)2003Western WA65-79100100900 (92)MRNS72
    Baumgartner (26)2003United States (NM)30-7463NS624 (77)MRNS46
    Zhu (27)2003United States (TN)≥2057NS281 (92)IHCNS54
    Althuis (28)2003United States (WISH)20-540851,375 (79)MR, DCC(+) or borderline (+), NS636152
    Britton (29)2002United States (WISH)20-4412861,212 (78)MR, DCC(+) or borderline (+), NS51
    Enger (30, 31)2000, 1999United States (LA County)<410NS424 (59)MR, ∼85% DCCNS49
    Enger (30, 31)2000, 1999United States (LA County)55-64100NS760 (66)MR, ∼85% DCCNS59
    Huang (32)2000United States (CBCS)20-7450100783 (91)MR, primarily IHCPE range: >0% to >20%; FR range: ≥10-15 fmol/mg53
    Morabia (33)1998Switzerland<7560100242 (92)DCC, IHC≥10 fmol/mg or ≥20%75
    Nasca (34)1994United States (NY)20-7963881,152 (75)MR(+): ≥10 fmol/mg; (−): ≤3 fmol/mg; borderline: 4-9 fmol/mg69
    Kreiger (35)1991Canada (ON)20-6959NS528 (87)MR≥10 fmol/mg6755
    Cooper (36)1989Australia20-7463NS380 (84)DCC≥10 fmol/mg67
    Hislop (37)1986Canada (BC)<7062NS512 (>80)MR≥3 fmol/mg or ≥20%67
    Stanford§ (38)1987United States (CASH-GA)20-5438NS458 (82)MR, DCC(+)45
    McTiernan§ (39)1986United States (CASH-WA)20-5438NS240 (73)MR, DCC≥7 fmol/mg606049
Hospital-based case-control studies
    Yoo (40, 41)2001, 1997Japan25+NS100455 (39)DCC, IHCDCC:≥10 fmol/mg644439
    Hildreth (42)1983United States (CT)45-74100NS148 (72)DCC≥30 fmol/mg70
  • NOTE: WHI, Women's Health Initiative; RCT, randomized clinical trial; DES, diethylstilbestrol; IWHS, Iowa Women's Health Study; NHS, Nurses' Health Study; DBCG, Danish Breast Cancer Group; WISH, Women's Interview Study of Health; CBCS, Carolina Breast Cancer Study; CASH, Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study; MR, abstracted from medical records and assay method not specified; fmol/mg, receptor protein concentration per total protein; %, the proportion of stained cells required for positivity; PE, paraffin-embedded tissue; FR, frozen tissue; NS, not specified.

  • * Age at enrollment, which when specified is age at baseline (BL) for cohort studies. m, mean; med, median age at diagnosis/interview.

  • Among total breast cancer cases enrolled, the proportion that had successful completion of tissue analysis for receptor expression.

  • Enger et al. (1999 and 2000) present data from two case-control studies: one of premenopausal women and the other of postmenopausal women.

  • § Proportion of postmenopausal cases based on study population from all sites (Centers for Disease Control Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study; ref. 52).