Table 5

Adjusteda regression coefficients based on regression of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and molar ratio (IGF-I:IGFBP-3) on dietary nutrient densities, Singapore Chinese Health Study

Nutrient densityIGF-I ng/mlIGFBP-3 ng/mlMolar ratio (IGF-I:IGFBP-3)*1000
βPβPβP
Energy (kcal/day)b−5.7140.41−156.6700.14−1.7500.73
Carbohydrates
 Model 1bc0.2060.47−0.6740.880.1600.44
 Model 2bd0.6470.35−1.5720.880.8080.11
Protein
 Model 1bc0.2350.784.9850.710.3040.63
 Model 2bd1.8370.188.8980.671.7230.09
Total fat
 Model 1bc−0.2420.51−0.2430.97−0.1120.68
 Model 2bd−0.0490.95−4.7350.700.5700.60
Saturated fat
 Model 1bc−1.8960.03−27.1140.04−0.7700.23
 Model 3be−2.4010.16−71.7620.0070.2630.83
Monounsaturated fat
 Model 1bc−0.8460.39−0.7930.96−0.5770.42
 Model 3be−0.9140.6946.7300.18−0.6510.70
ω3-Polyunsaturated fat
 Model 1bc18.8180.10422.1710.028.5630.30
 Model 3be21.9370.18618.2240.014.1220.73
ω6-Polyunsaturated fat
 Model 1bc1.7300.1332.6240.060.8690.29
 Model 3be0.4760.81−27.3080.351.5300.27
Dietary fiber0.4690.5532.9690.006−0.1470.80
Calcium from food and supplement0.0440.0070.7900.0020.0230.06
Soy proteinf1.4980.4743.4610.170.7610.61
 Men6.5320.0259.5490.154.3900.05
 Women−3.4420.2632.2230.51−3.0050.14
  • a All models adjusted for age, BMI, gender, and physical activity.

  • b No statistically significant interaction was observed between nutrient density and gender.

  • c Model 1: unadjusted for other nutrient densities.

  • d Model 2: adjusted for other macronutrient densities.

  • e Model 3: adjusted for carbohydrate, protein, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, ω3-polyunsaturated fat, and ω6-polyunsaturated fat density.

  • f P for interaction between soy protein density and gender: 0.01 for IGF-I; 0.51 for IGFBP-3; 0.01 for molar ratio.