Table 1

Milestones in evolution of cancer control frameworks

Initial datesOriginsDistinctive features
1982United States NCI cancer control review• Introduce concept of national strategy of programmatic intervention research, from hypothesis generation to demonstration projects in defined populations
1985Greenwald & Cullen, 1985• Focus on intervention research to translate etiological significance into population impact
• Redefine “cancer control” as a research endeavor
• Highlight “impact on defined populations” as key endpoint
• Described model for evidence-based strategic decisions
• Introduced dissemination research as distinct field
1988NCIC creation of senior Advisory Committee on Cancer Control• Conceptualize knowledge synthesis as the shared responsibility of those in fundamental and intervention research, surveillance and monitoring, and program development and delivery
• Highlight the importance of shared language and values across diverse stakeholders
1994ACOCC, 1994• Place priority of funding research likely to make population impact
• Shift paradigm from cancer control research to coordinated cancer control research, program and policy in service of population-public health
1997United States NCI Cancer Control Program Review• Highlight need to assess societal trends in setting research priorities
• Emphasize importance of continuous reinvestment in fundamental research to support next generation of interventions
1999Hiatt & Rimer, 1999• Highlight need for greater integration of biobehavioral and population-public health perspectives
• Broaden conceptualization of outcomes to balance biomedical indicators with population impacts
• Broaden role of scientist to include knowledge synthesis
• Invested in and operationalized cancer control research dissemination
• Introduce key concept of transdisciplinary research to cancer control
1999Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control• Introduce plan for a “comprehensive, coherent, and integrated” national strategy uniting research producers and research consumers
• Focus on broad and extensive collaboration among these stakeholders as key to bridge basic to applied research, research to application, and to actualize transdisciplinary/transectoral principles
2001Canadian Cancer Research Strategy• Development of a national research agenda
• Attention to roles and infrastructure required to support research to application