Table 1

Age-standardized baseline characteristics according to quintiles of glycemic load and index among postmenopausal women in CPS II Nutrition Survey cohort

VariableQuintile of glycemic loadQuintile of glycemic index
135135
Quintile mean score83115147657485
BMI ≥30 (%)a,b16.214.610.512.314.615.2
Adult weight gain >40 lb (%)c27.224.918.822.626.426.7
Regular physical activity (%)d22.624.227.827.124.720.9
Hormone replacement therapy never user (%)40.839.438.837.139.442.9
Oral contraceptive never user (%)59.261.463.058.861.363.6
Nonsmoker (%)44.257.060.050.555.853.9
Nondrinker (%)32.546.257.737.346.852.5
Daily multivitamin user (%)28.533.037.537.830.927.7
Daily dietary intake (Mean ± SE)
 Dietary glycemic indexe70.4 ± 0.174.3 ± 0.178.7 ± 0.1
 Dietary glycemic loade101 ± 0.2116 ± 0.2127 ± 0.2
 Total energy (kcal)1348 ± 4.11375 ± 4.21382 ± 4.11341 ± 4.01370 ± 4.01354 ± 4.1
 Total carbohydrate (g)e119 ± 0.1155 ± 0.1187 ± 0.1156 ± 0.2155 ± 0.3150 ± 0.1
 Total fat (g)e60 ± 0.149 ± 0.136 ± 0.144 ± 0.149 ± 0.153 ± 0.1
 Protein (g)e52 ± 0.154 ± 0.155 ± 0.158 ± 0.153 ± 0.151 ± 0.1
 Total fiber (g)e8.4 ± 0.0311.3 ± 0.0314.5 ± 0.0311.7 ± 0.0311.6 ± 0.0310.4 ± 0.03
 Fiber from grains (g)e2.6 ± 0.014.0 ± 0.015.4 ± 0.013.5 ± 0.024.1 ± 0.024.2 ± 0.02
 Fiber from vegetable, fruits (g)e4.8 ± 0.026.3 ± 0.037.9 ± 0.037.2 ± 0.0276.4 ± 0.035.2 ± 0.03
 Alcohol (g)11.5 ± 0.093.3 ± 0.091.6 ± 0.097.7 ± 0.094.1 ± 0.103.3 ± 0.09
 Vegetable serv/day1.7 ± 0.012.0 ± 0.012.4 ± 0.012.2 ± 0.012.1 ± 0.011.8 ± 0.01
 Fruit serv/day1.3 ± 0.012.0 ± 0.012.7 ± 0.012.1 ± 0.012.1 ± 0.011.6 ± 0.01
  • a Percentages adjusted to the age distribution of the study population.

  • b BMI [weight/(height2)].

  • c Adult weight gain is defined as difference of reported weight at age 18 and weight in 1992.

  • d Regular physical activity represented as highest quartile of MET score.

  • e Energy-adjusted intake.