Table 3

ORs and 95% CIs for prostate cancer associated with cigarette smoking, stratified by disease aggressiveness

Smoking exposureControls, nCases, n Less aggressiveCases, n More aggressiveORa (95% CI) Less aggressiveORa (95% CI) More aggressive
Smoking status
 Nonsmoker26619784ReferentReferent
 Former smoker3222201290.9 (0.7–1.2)1.3 (0.9–1.8)
 Current smoker11581421.4 (1.0–2.0)1.5 (1.0–2.4)
Smoking duration (yr)
 Nonsmoker26619784ReferentReferent
 <106849240.9 (0.6–1.4)1.1 (0.6–1.8)
 10–1910076371.0 (0.7–1.5)1.2 (0.7–1.9)
 20–299852370.8 (0.5–1.2)1.3 (0.8–2.1)
 30–3910370411.2 (0.8–1.7)1.5 (1.0–2.4)
 ≥406854321.3 (0.8–2.0)1.8 (1.1–3.1)
Cigarettes/day
 Nonsmokers26619784ReferentReferent
 1–107553380.9 (0.6–1.4)1.6 (1.0–2.5)
 11–20230144720.9 (0.7–1.3)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
 21–307548261.0 (0.7–1.6)1.3 (0.8–2.2)
 31–403738241.6 (0.9–2.7)2.3 (1.3–4.1)
 >402018111.3 (0.6–2.6)1.9 (0.8–4.2)
Pack-years
 Nonsmoker26619784ReferentReferent
 ≤109382401.1 (0.8–1.6)1.3 (0.8–2.0)
 11–209242230.7 (0.4–1.1)0.9 (0.5–1.5)
 21–307639330.8 (0.5–1.2)1.5 (0.9–2.4)
 31–407352211.2 (0.8–1.8)1.1 (0.6–1.9)
 >4010386541.4 (1.0–2.0)2.0 (1.3–3.1)
Years since cessation
 Nonsmoker26619784ReferentReferent
 Current smoker11581421.4 (1.0–2.0)1.5 (1.0–2.4)
 <107345350.9 (0.6–1.4)1.7 (1.0–2.7)
 10–199461371.0 (0.7–1.5)1.4 (0.9–2.2)
 20–298659360.9 (0.6–1.4)1.3 (0.8–2.1)
 ≥306955210.8 (0.5–1.3)0.8 (0.5–1.4)
Age first smoked
 Nonsmoker26619784ReferentReferent
 ≤15 years12896701.1 (0.8–1.5)1.8 (1.2–2.7)
 16–17 years10476381.2 (0.8–1.7)1.3 (0.8–2.1)
 18–19 years10574331.1 (0.7–1.6)1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 ≥20 years10055300.8 (0.5–1.2)1.0 (0.6–1.7)
  • a ORs adjusted for age, race, family history of prostate cancer, history of PSA testing >1 year before reference date, and history of BPH.