Table 2

ORs and 95% CIs for prostate cancer associated with cigarette smoking

Smoking variableCases, n (%)Controls, n (%)ORa (95% CI)
Smoking status
 Nonsmoker281 (37)266 (38)Referent
 Former smoker349 (46)322 (46)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
 Current smoker123 (16)115 (16)1.4 (1.0–2.0)
Smoking duration (yr)b
 Nonsmokers281 (38)266 (38)Referent
 <1073 (10)68 (10)0.9 (0.6–1.4)
 10–19113 (15)100 (14)1.1 (0.8–1.5)
 20–2989 (12)98 (14)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 30–39111 (14)103 (14)1.3 (0.9–1.8)
 ≥4086 (11)68 (10)1.5 (1.0–2.2)
Cigarettes/dayc
 Nonsmokers281 (37)266 (38)Referent
 1–1091 (12)75 (11)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
 11–20216 (29)230 (33)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
 21–3074 (10)75 (11)1.1 (0.7–1.7)
 31–4062 (8)37 (5)1.8 (1.1–2.9)
 >4029 (4)20 (3)1.5 (0.8–2.8)
Pack-years of smokingd
 Nonsmoker281 (37)266 (38)Referent
 ≤10122 (16)93 (13)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
 11–2065 (9)92 (13)0.7 (0.5–1.1)
 21–3072 (10)76 (11)1.0 (0.7–1.5)
 31–4073 (10)73 (10)1.1 (0.8–1.7)
 >40140 (19)103 (15)1.6 (1.1–2.2)
Years since smoking cessatione
 Nonsmoker281 (37)266 (38)Referent
 Current smoker123 (16)115 (16)1.4 (1.0–2.0)
 <1080 (11)73 (10)1.2 (0.8–1.7)
 10–1998 (13)94 (13)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
 20–2995 (13)86 (12)1.0 (0.7–1.5)
 ≥3076 (10)69 (10)0.8 (0.6–1.2)
  • a ORs adjusted for age, race, family history of prostate cancer, history of PSA testing >1 year before reference date, and history of BPH.

  • b Trend test for smoking duration P = 0.07.

  • c Trend test for cigarettes per day P = 0.09.

  • d Pack-years = years smoked × cigarettes/day / 20; trend test for pack-years of smoking P = 0.03.

  • e Trend test for years since smoking cessation P = 0.02.