Table 5

Risks of prostate cancer by quartile of control micronutrient (ng/ml) distributiona

QuartilebPtrend
1st2nd3rd4th
Lutein1c0.94 (0.55–1.60)0.77 (0.44–1.35)0.86 (0.48–1.52)0.44
Zeaxanthin10.91 (0.53–1.55)0.88 (0.52–1.49)0.78 (0.43–1.41)0.42
β-Cryptoxanthin10.98 (0.58–1.66)1.09 (0.62–1.91)0.81 (0.46–1.43)0.58
Lycopene10.65 (0.36–1.15)0.47 (0.26–0.87)1.04 (0.61–1.77)0.83
α-Carotene10.98 (0.55–1.73)0.83 (0.47–1.47)1.18 (0.68–2.05)0.72
β-Carotene10.94 (0.55–1.62)1.06 (0.61–1.83)0.85 (0.49–1.49)0.69
α-Tocopherol10.72 (0.42–1.22)0.61 (0.35–1.06)0.59 (0.34–1.04)0.04
γ-Tocopherol10.91 (0.52–1.59)0.87 (0.50–1.52)0.86 (0.50–1.48)0.57
Retinol11.03 (0.59–1.80)1.56 (0.88–2.74)1.02 (0.56–1.87)0.59
Retinyl palmitate11.24 (0.69–2.22)1.05 (0.60–1.82)0.93 (0.52–1.64)0.65
  • a OR from conditional logistic regression model stratified on exposure population, study center at randomization, age at randomization within 5-year intervals, sex, smoking status at randomization, and year of randomization.

  • b Quartile cutpoints for lutein (103, 135, 173), zeaxanthin (21.0, 27.0, 36.0), β-cryptoxanthin (36.0, 55.0, 90.0), lycopene (229, 321, 417), α-carotene (18.0, 30.0, 43.0), β-carotene (94, 139, 219), polar carotenoids (176, 225, 290), nonpolar carotenoids (374, 514, 686), α-tocopherol (10666, 12830, 16792), γ-tocopherol (1754, 2569, 3567), retinol (572, 657, 786), and retinyl palmitate (26.0, 38.0, 62.0).

  • c Comparison quartile.