Table 4

Risks of lung cancer by quartile of control micronutrient (ng/ml) distributiona

QuartilebPtrendPinteraction
1st2nd3rd4th
Lutein
 Overall1c0.49 (0.30–0.80)0.53 (0.32–0.87)0.55 (0.33–0.93)0.02
 Male10.35 (0.19–0.66)0.53 (0.28–0.99)0.79 (0.40–1.57)0.480.04
 Female11.01 (0.44–2.34)0.55 (0.25–1.24)0.31 (0.13–0.75)0.005
Zeaxanthin
 Overall10.69 (0.43–1.11)0.61 (0.37–1.02)0.56 (0.33–0.95)0.02
 Male10.76 (0.40–1.44)0.74 (0.39–1.41)0.78 (0.40–1.51)0.440.72
 Female10.62 (0.30–1.31)0.46 (0.20–1.08)0.31 (0.12–0.77)0.007
β-Cryptoxanthin
 Overall10.98 (0.62–1.56)0.49 (0.29–0.85)0.76 (0.44–1.28)0.07
 Male11.25 (0.71–2.20)0.70 (0.35–1.40)1.21 (0.62–2.37)0.970.32
 Female10.58 (0.25–1.35)0.26 (0.10–0.64)0.34 (0.14–0.81)0.005
Lycopene
 Overall11.04 (0.64–1.69)0.71 (0.43–1.17)0.86 (0.52–1.43)0.31
 Male11.04 (0.58–1.88)0.70 (0.37–1.34)1.07 (0.56–2.05)0.870.87
 Female11.09 (0.47–2.52)0.72 (0.32–1.64)0.61 (0.27–1.38)0.16
α-Carotene
 Overall11.02 (0.62–1.69)0.86 (0.52–1.42)0.77 (0.45–1.32)0.26
 Male11.07 (0.58–1.98)0.87 (0.47–1.63)1.13 (0.58–2.22)0.960.63
 Female10.88 (0.35–2.16)0.74 (0.32–1.75)0.43 (0.17–1.08)0.06
β-Carotene
 Overall11.43 (0.88–2.32)0.85 (0.49–1.45)1.07 (0.63–1.83)0.73
 Male11.29 (0.72–2.32)1.11 (0.57–2.15)1.40 (0.71–2.74)0.420.41
 Female11.71 (0.71–4.17)0.53 (0.21–1.35)0.72 (0.30–1.75)0.11
α-Tocopherol
 Overall10.71 (0.42–1.18)0.76 (0.46–1.26)0.52 (0.31–0.88)0.03
 Male10.62 (0.33–1.18)0.86 (0.47–1.59)0.49 (0.25–0.95)0.090.91
 Female10.83 (0.35–1.99)0.63 (0.25–1.54)0.57 (0.23–1.38)0.17
γ-Tocopherol
 Overall10.94 (0.58–1.52)1.00 (0.62–1.61)0.95 (0.58–1.57)0.92
 Male10.87 (0.46–1.63)0.80 (0.43–1.47)0.73 (0.37–1.44)0.340.84
 Female11.01 (0.48–2.14)1.43 (0.65–3.16)1.32 (0.62–2.82)0.35
Retinol
 Overall10.62 (0.37–1.01)0.59 (0.36–0.96)0.69 (0.42–1.14)0.11
 Male10.53 (0.28–1.00)0.49 (0.27–0.92)0.54 (0.29–1.01)0.0460.88
 Female10.79 (0.35–1.78)0.77 (0.34–1.75)1.05 (0.46–2.37)1.00
Retinyl palmitate
 Overall11.39 (0.84–2.30)1.19 (0.71–1.98)0.73 (0.42–1.28)0.24
 Male11.70 (0.90–3.23)1.63 (0.86–3.09)0.66 (0.33–1.33)0.390.48
 Female10.98 (0.42–2.28)0.69 (0.28–1.65)0.77 (0.30–1.99)0.41
  • a OR from conditional logistic regression model stratified on exposure population, study center at randomization, age at randomization within 5-year intervals, sex, smoking status at randomization, and year of randomization, and controlling for pack-years of smoking and years quit smoking.

  • b Quartile cutpoints for lutein (106, 138, 175), zeaxanthin (21.0, 27.0, 36.0), β-cryptoxanthin (39.5.0, 60.0, 87.0), lycopene (213, 319, 437), α-carotene (19.0, 31.0, 51.5), β-carotene (87, 158, 255), polar carotenoids (184, 233, 289), nonpolar carotenoids (382, 533, 741), α-tocopherol (10760, 13016, 17038), γ-tocopherol (1687, 2416, 3417), retinol (577, 660, 777), and retinyl palmitate (25.0, 37.5, 69.5).

  • c Comparison quartile.