Table 2

Association between control participants’ smoking history and micronutrient serum concentrations (ng/ml) geometric means

AnalytesOverallSmoking StatusaPack-yearsbPcPtrendd
(1st and 3rd Quartile)FormerCurrentPc<4040–60>60
Lutein137 (104, 178)1441330.071461361260.020.004
 Male136 (105, 173)1421320.091501331260.010.002
 Female140 (103, 194)1521370.351391461320.770.91
Zeaxanthin27.2 (21.0, 36.0)29.626.00.00428.626.626.30.230.12
 Male27.8 (21.0, 36.0)29.626.70.0430.726.626.40.020.01
 Female25.5 (20.0, 33.0)29.424.30.0824.926.325.40.840.71
β-Cryptoxanthin58.0 (38.0, 88.0)69.852.5<0.00165.557.550.40.004<0.001
 Male55.3 (37.0, 84.0)68.348.6<0.00164.854.848.00.0030.001
 Female67.1 (49.0, 97.0)77.764.00.1466.166.572.70.860.66
Lycopene305 (219, 437)3252960.093192972990.450.29
 Male303 (220, 431)3252900.073142913060.560.76
 Female313 (213, 464)3243090.733303182450.220.14
α-Carotene31.1 (19.0, 49.5)34.729.40.0232.932.527.30.060.04
 Male29.0 (18.0, 45.0)31.927.40.0531.229.626.30.190.07
 Female38.6 (24.0, 61.0)51.535.20.0136.242.936.20.460.61
β-Carotene148 (91, 236)1601420.131621541250.010.01
 Male136 (87, 213)1471300.151561381180.030.01
 Female194 (134, 287)2451800.071762172000.430.33
α-Tocopherol13800 (10700, 16900)14800132000.0031360013900139000.880.68
 Male13600 (10600, 16600)14600129000.0051330013700137000.890.67
 Female14500 (11200, 17500)15900140000.141410014600154000.730.43
γ-Tocopherol2300 (1700, 3500)247022500.172230232024600.470.22
 Male2500 (1800, 3600)260224080.262470234026700.270.35
 Female1900 (1400, 3000)192919080.951840227013400.070.60
Retinol666 (572, 772)6956510.016626736610.791.00
 Male675 (580, 782)6996600.046816756670.840.55
 Female641 (545, 756)6786290.186286656160.460.79
Retinyl-palmitate45.6 (27.0, 69.0)53.142.00.0142.448.845.60.370.45
 Male44.8 (26.0, 69.0)52.640.60.0140.447.646.00.410.33
 Female48.1 (29.0, 69.0)55.345.60.2746.352.542.50.590.96
  • a There are 144 (119 male, 25 female) former smokers and 272 (195 male, 77 female) current smokers.

  • b There are 146 (96 male, 50 female) participants with <40 pack-years, 157 (118 male, 39 female) participants with 40–60 pack-years, and 113 (100 male, 13 female) with >60 pack-years.

  • c P from test for heterogeneity.

  • d P from test for trend.