Table 5

Joint effects of cumulative exposure to maté, alcohol, and tobacco smoking on esophageal cancer riska

Lifetime consumption of matébLifetime drinking of alcoholcLifetime tobacco smokingdNo. of cases/controlsOR (95% CI)
LowLowLow43/1481.00 (reference)
LowLowHigh32/672.36 (1.23–4.53)
LowHighLow8/142.54 (0.93–6.95)
LowHighHigh45/474.06 (2.07–7.96)
HighLowLow38/681.52 (0.88–2.62)
HighLowHigh51/623.12 (1.69–5.78)
HighHighLow7/63.40 (1.00–11.59)
HighHighHigh89/467.10 (3.75–13.46)
  • a ORs adjusted for design variables age, sex, urban/rural status, and years of education. P for the interaction between lifetime exposures to maté, alcohol, and tobacco smoking = 0.96.

  • b Lifetime consumption of maté (liter-years): low, 0–16000; high, ≥16001.

  • c Lifetime consumption of alcohol (liter-years): low, 0–832; high, ≥833.

  • d Lifetime exposure to tobacco smoking (pack-years): low, 0–5840; high, ≥5841.