Table 3

OR of esophageal cancer for consumption of maté

VariablesCasesControlsOR1a(95% CI)OR2b(95% CI)
n(%)n(%)
Maté drinking
 Never15(4.4)64(13.7)1.00c
 Ever327(95.6)405(86.3)2.26(1.19–4.27)
Lifetime consumption (liter-years)
 Nondrinkers15(4.4)64(13.7)1.00c
 1–800031(9.1)89(19.0)1.43(0.68–3.01)1.00c
 8001–1600086(25.2)127(27.1)2.21(1.12–4.35)1.64(0.95–2.81)
 16001–2400093(27.3)104(22.2)2.43(1.22–4.83)1.70(0.98–2.95)
 ≥24001116(34.0)84(18.0)3.07(1.53–6.16)2.16(1.23–3.79)
P for trend (drinkers only)0.0090.2
Amount consumed (liter/day)
 Nondrinkers15(4.4)64(13.6)1.00c
 0.01–0.5073(21.4)149(31.8)1.69(0.85–3.35)1.00c
 0.51–1.00152(44.4)172(36.7)2.47(1.28–4.77)1.49(1.00–2.23)
 1.01102(29.8)84(17.9)2.84(1.41–5.73)1.62(1.01–2.62)
P for trend (drinkers only)0.020.3
Temperature
 Nondrinkers15(4.8)64(14.1)1.00c
 Warm/hot241(77.8)347(76.4)2.00(1.05–3.81)1.00c
 Very hot54(17.4)43(9.5)3.98(1.98–8.44)1.87(1.17–3.00)
P for trend (drinkers only)0.004
Duration of consumption (yr)
 Nondrinkers15(4.4)67(14.3)1.00c
 1–3533(9.6)92(19.7)1.31(0.61–2.81)1.00c
 36–4998(28.6)117(25.0)2.29(1.16–4.52)1.62(0.91–2.88)
 50–5892(26.9)98(20.9)2.58(1.27–5.24)1.90(0.96–3.73)
 ≥59104(30.4)94(20.1)4.31(1.99–9.34)3.06(1.35–6.94)
P for trend (drinkers only)0.0050.04
Time since quitting (yr)
 Nondrinkers15(4.8)64(14.1)1.00c
 Current drinkersd280(89.7)359(78.9)2.31(1.22–4.37)
 3–1011(3.5)14(3.1)1.84(0.63–5.36)
 ≥11+6(1.9)18(3.9)1.13(0.35–3.62)
P for trend (quitters only)0.1
  • a OR1 adjusted for age, sex, urban/rural status, years of education, number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking duration, total alcohol per day, and duration of alcohol consumption.

  • b OR2, analysis restricted to ever maté drinkers, lifetime consumption further adjusted for temperature; amount consumed, maté temperature, and duration of maté consumption further adjusted for each other.

  • c Reference category.

  • d Includes quitters of up to 2 years.