Table 1

Characteristics of the study population by gender

Women (N = 471)Men (N = 398)
Cases (n = 196)Controls (n = 275)Cases (n = 237)Controls (n = 161)
Age (yr), mean ± SD58.6 ± 10.749.5 ± 15.0a59.3 ± 10.651.9 ± 12.2a
Genotype, %
ADH3*1/*135.236.736.334.2
ADH3*1/*248.047.644.746.6
ADH3*2/*216.815.619.019.3
Alcohol intake, median (25th, 75th percentile)
 Ethanol (g/day)3.9 (0.3; 14.6)1.5 (0.1; 8.7)a14.2 (4.3; 30.4)14.5 (3.5; 26.5)
 Alcoholic consumptions/wk2.5 (0.2; 10.0)1.0 (0; 6.0)a10.0 (2.3; 21.1)9.3 (2.5; 18.0)
  Beer0 (0; 0)0 (0; 0.1)0.5 (0; 7.0)2.0 (0; 7.0)
  Wine (red, white, rosé)0.5 (0; 4.0)0.2 (0; 2.7)0.5 (0; 5.2)0.7 (0; 4.0)
  Spirits (incl port, sherry etc)0.1 (0; 1.1)0 (0; 0.5)a0.9 (0; 6.5)0.5 (0; 4.0)
Dietary habits, median (25th, 75th percentile)
 Total energy (KJ/day)7,684 (6,539; 8,979)7,440 (6,419; 8,978)9,293 (7,942; 10,951)10,239 (8,435; 11,623)a
 Vegetables (g/day)122 (98, 154)114 (90, 144)a110 (86, 140)112 (83, 137)
 Fruit (pieces/day)1.5 (1.0, 2.3)1.0 (0.6, 2.0)a1.0 (0.4, 2.0)1.0 (0.4, 2.0)
 Red meat (g/day)57 (28, 77)48 (26, 73)74 (48, 91)73 (42, 90)
 Coffee (cups/day)4.0 (2.5; 5)4.0 (2; 6)4.0 (3; 6)5.0 (3; 6)
 Folic acid (μg/day)187 (162; 221)175 (153; 204)a204 (171; 245)216 (187; 252)a
 Retinol (μg/day)554 (392; 785)499 (346; 744)736 (524; 1223)838 (517; 1189)
Medical history, %
 Dietary changes because of bowel complaints18.933.8a17.319.3
 Family history of colorectal cancer26.519.320.319.3
 Previous diagnosis of adenomas45.9n.a.b40.1n.a.
 Complaints-related endoscopy indication46.978.2a55.774.5a
Other characteristics
 Body mass index (kg/m2), mean ± SD25.8 ± 4.525.1 ± 4.526.3 ± 3.325.9 ± 3.1
 Cigarette smoking, % never smokers45.952.732.146.6a
 High physical activity, %35.734.620.326.7
 Low education level, %44.433.130.026.1
  • a Significantly different from cases: P < 0.05 (Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, t test for age, and body mass index, and Wilcoxon’s rank test for dietary variables).

  • b n.a., not applicable.